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Posted: January 21st, 2023
The purpose of this assignment is to discuss concepts of epidemiology and apply nursing theories and research to communicable diseases. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC websites, all located in the topic Resources, for assistance when completing this assignment.
Choose a communicable disease topic from the resources mentioned above or you may select one from the list below:
Write a paper (750 words) in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing to research a communicable disease. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC websites, located in the topic Resources, for assistance when completing this assignment.
Describe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence).
Explain why this is a reportable disease. Provide details about reporting criteria.
Describe the social determinants of health and how those factors contribute to the development of the chosen communicable disease.
Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors.
Identify any special considerations or notifications for the epidemiologic triangle (community, schools, or general population).
Explain the importance of demographic data to community health.
Describe the role of the community health nurse in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention through tasks such as case finding, reporting, data collection, analysis, and follow-up. Provide an example of how Christian worldview can be integrated by a community health nurse when working with a population impacted by the communicable disease selected.
Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organizations contribute to resolving or reducing the impact of the disease.
Discuss a global implication of the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.
A minimum of three peer-reviewed or professional references (i.e., professional health organizations like CDC, WHO, OSHA, and DHS) is required.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
Communicable diseases are illnesses caused by microorganisms that can be transmitted from one person to another. In this paper, the communicable disease that will be discussed is Influenza, commonly known as the flu. Influenza is a highly contagious respiratory illness that is caused by the influenza virus. The flu can cause severe symptoms, hospitalization, and even death. In this paper, the causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and demographic of interest of influenza will be discussed, as well as the social determinants of health and the epidemiologic triangle. The role of community health nurses in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention will also be discussed, along with the importance of demographic data to community health. The paper will also discuss the role of national agencies and organizations in resolving or reducing the impact of the disease, and the global implications of influenza.
Causes and Symptoms
Influenza is caused by the influenza virus, which is a contagious respiratory illness that can be spread through the air by coughing or sneezing. The flu virus can also be spread by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. The most common symptoms of influenza include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, body aches, headache, fatigue, and sometimes vomiting and diarrhea. These symptoms usually appear 1-4 days after exposure to the virus and can last for several days.
Transmission and Complications
The flu is easily spread from person to person through the air by coughing or sneezing. The virus can also be spread by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. The flu is most contagious during the first 2-4 days of symptoms, but some people can be contagious for up to 7 days. The most common complications of influenza include pneumonia, ear infections, and sinus infections. Influenza can also lead to other serious health conditions, such as sepsis and meningitis.
Treatment and Demographic of Interest
Influenza can be treated with antiviral medications, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza). These medications can shorten the duration of the flu and reduce the severity of symptoms. However, these medications are most effective when taken within the first 2 days of symptoms. The demographic of interest for influenza includes people who are at high risk of serious complications, such as young children, pregnant women, people over the age of 65, and people with certain underlying health conditions, such as asthma, diabetes, and heart disease. The morbidity and mortality rate of influenza is high, and it causes significant annual epidemics globally.
Social Determinants of Health
The social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age. These conditions include economic stability, education, social support networks, and access to healthcare. Social determinants of health can contribute to the development of influenza by increasing the risk of exposure to the virus and reducing access to medical care. People who live in poverty, have limited access to healthcare, or live in overcrowded conditions are at a higher risk of getting the flu.
The epidemiologic triangle is a model that describes the relationship between agents, hosts, and the environment in the spread of a disease. In the case of influenza, the agent is the influenza virus, the host is the person who is infected with the virus, and the environment includes the places where the virus can be spread, such as homes, schools, and workplaces. Host factors that contribute to the spread of influenza include weakened immune systems
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