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Posted: December 23rd, 2022

Format Specification of Doctoral and Master’s Thesis

Format Specification of Doctoral and Master’s Thesis of the School of Foreign Chinese (Trial).
(June 27, 2022)

A dissertation is an important document that shows that the author has creative research results or new insights in research work, and applies for a doctoral or master’s degree accordingly. In order to standardize the format of dissertations and improve the quality of dissertations, according to the national standard of the People’s Republic of China “Preparation Format of Scientific and Technical Reports, Dissertations and Academic Papers” (GB7713-87), combined with the specific conditions of our institute, the basic format of this thesis is specially formulated.

1. Content requirements for dissertations
Master’s theses are generally written in the professional language, with a word count of more than 15,000; In principle, doctoral dissertations should be written in Chinese with a word count of more than 80,000 words, or they can be written in the professional language with a word count of 50,000 words or more. The dissertation should in turn include the following parts: (1) the cover; (2) The title page written in the professional language (if the professional language is not English, the English title page will be added at the same time); (3) Fund funding page; (4) Statement of originality of the paper and copyright authorization; (5) Table of Contents; (6) Abstracts and keywords written in the professional language (if the professional language is not English, the English abstract and keywords will be added at the same time); (7) Chinese abstract and keywords; (8) Symbol description; (9) preface (introduction or introduction); (10) Text; (11) Conclusion; (12) references; (13) Appendices; (14) research results obtained during the degree study; (15) Acknowledgements and other parts are composed and arranged in this order.
Other content beyond the above 15 sections can be set at your own discretion and inserted in the appropriate position.

The specific requirements for each section are as follows (dissertations should be written in the following order):
1. cover
Fill in the title of the thesis, the name of the author, the name of the supervisor, the degree level of the application, the discipline, the date of the thesis defense, etc. on the cover page.
The title of the thesis should summarize the most important content of the entire paper, and the writing should be concise, appropriate and specific, avoiding the use of “trial theory”, “brief analysis”, Words such as “A Study of”, “An Analysis of” and less commonly used acronyms, acronyms, characters, codes and formulas. The thesis topic should be written in the Chinese and the language of the major (if the language of the major is not English, English will be added at the same time). Generally, there are no more than 25 Chinese characters, and if the meaning is not exhausted, it can be supplemented by subheadings. Subheadings should be subordinate and can generally be led to a dash “-” on the next line of the title.
If the dissertation is confidential, the corresponding level of confidentiality (which can be divided into three levels: internal, secret and confidential) must be indicated in the column specified on the cover. After the confidentiality period has expired, the use authorization statement will be automatically acknowledged and made public.
For the specific format, please refer to Appendix 1 cover example.
2. English title page
For details and format, please refer to Appendix 2.

3. Fund Grants page
For details and format, please refer to Appendix 3.

4. Statement of originality of the paper and copyright release
The content is shown in Appendix 4, and the author and supervisor must sign the paper in the corresponding place when submitting.

5. directory
The table of contents consists of a number, a heading, and a page number. Includes abstracts, symbol descriptions, prefaces, headings of levels 1 to 3 of the main text and their numbering, epilogue, references, appendices, research results obtained during the degree, acknowledgements, etc. The table of contents can’t be overly simplistic; The page numbers of the table of contents must match the chapters in the main text and the accompanying content. A sample table of contents format is provided in Appendix 5.

6. Abstract and keywords in the professional language and English
The content of the abstract in the language and English of this major should concisely express the main points of the thesis, reflect the core ideas of the thesis work, and should involve the background and purpose of the research, theory and method, discovery and enlightenment, and the sentence should be smooth, and the length should not exceed 1 page (about 350 words). Figures, citations, and names of relevant scholars should not appear in the abstract.
On a separate line below the abstract, indicate 3-5 keywords in this article (no more than 30 total characters including punctuation). )。

7. Chinese abstracts and keywords
Chinese abstract content should be consistent with the content of the abstract in this language and English, and should not exceed 1 page (about 600 words) in length.
On a separate line below the abstract, indicate 3-5 keywords in this article (including punctuation, the total number of words does not exceed 15 Chinese characters).

8. Symbol description (heading, listing).
Explain the meaning, units, or dimensions represented by the symbols used in the paper. Symbol descriptions are mainly intended to aid reading the paper, and if symbols are not used in the paper, this section is omitted.
If figures are used in the paper, add the headings and headings here.

9. Preface (Introduction or Introduction)
The preface summarizes the social and academic background of the research topic; theoretical, practical and practical value for social progress, economic construction and academic development; Analysis and induction of research status at home and abroad; The theoretical or practical problem to be solved by the thesis; The basic ideas of the paper, the main theories and methods used, as well as the structure of the writing and the arrangement of chapters. According to the characteristics and norms of the discipline, the preface can be listed separately or included as the main text in the first chapter.

10. body
The main body is the main body of the dissertation, which is generally composed of title, text description, charts, formulas and data, etc., and the following issues should be paid attention to when writing:
(1) The level should be clear, the title should highlight the key points, and the chapters should be closely related to each other, forming a whole.
(2) Views that have been generally accepted as common sense and accepted by the academic community should not be described from the beginning.
(3) If a new term, new term or concept that is not generic appears, it needs to be clearly explained.
(4) The illustrations in the paper should be distinct, and should not be duplicated with lists and text expressions. The terms, symbols, units, etc. in the illustrations should be consistent with the text expressions. The serial number and name of the illustration are centered below the figure. The illustration should be clear, the coordinate scale should not be too enlarged, and the points of different curves on the same picture should be marked with different shapes.
The parameters in the list should be marked with signs of quantities and units. The ordinal number of the list and the name of the list should be centered above the list.
The number of the formula should be enclosed in parentheses and written at the end of the formula, without dashed lines.
(5) The writing of the unit name in the paper can use international symbols or Chinese names, but the whole text should be unified and not mixed. The amount and unit used in the paper should strictly implement the provisions on quantity and unit of GB3100~3102:93. For specific requirements, see Common Quantities and Units, Metrology Press, 1996.
(6) The conclusion of the dissertation is the summary of the entire dissertation, the destination of the entire dissertation, not a simple repetition of the summary of the chapters in the main text. Require a concise, accurate, and complete articulation of one’s creative work or new insights and their meaning and role. In the conclusion or discussion, outstanding issues, ideas for further research, and other suggestions related to the work of the thesis may be raised. If it is not possible to draw the proper conclusion, it is possible to carry out the necessary explanation and discussion without the conclusion.
(7) The dissertation should strictly abide by academic norms under the guidance of the supervisor. The author of the dissertation must strictly distinguish the boundary between the topic, the research and the topic, viewpoint and achievements of the predecessor (including his supervisor), and clearly express the relationship between his research conclusions, main views and the relevant achievements of the predecessor in an appropriate position. Plagiarism is strictly prohibited, and once discovered, it will be severely punished in accordance with the relevant regulations of the Academic Degrees Committee of the State Council, the Ministry of Education, the Department of Education of Jiangsu Province, and Yangzhou University.

11. epilogue
The conclusion focuses on summarizing the main conclusions or main points proposed by the thesis research, such as the innovation points or new insights of the paper, and objectively explains the problems that need further research in the paper on this basis.

12. bibliography
References refer to the literature that the author has referred to as a whole and borrowed in the process of writing this dissertation, as well as the literature that has the main guiding and enlightening effect on the author, and the literature that the author uses as the main argument to demonstrate, analyze and deduce to form his own arguments, views or research conclusions.
References should be arranged in the order of English literature, professional language literature and Chinese literature, and each document should be listed in the order of the author’s last name letter or pinyin, and be numbered, and only the literature that the author has directly read and cited in the text is listed. References are always placed after the conclusion of the paper, not after the chapters. Each document must be complete and indispensable.

13. appendix
All research processes or materials that should not be placed in the body of the thesis, but are related to the dissertation, such as lengthy formula derivation, repetitive or auxiliary data charts, auxiliary teaching tools or tables required for easy reading, questionnaires, literature reviews, calculation procedures and relevant explanations, etc., should be included in the appendix as supplementary items to the main body of the dissertation.
“Appendix: ” and the title of the appendix are centered in No. 4 and black, and the bottom line is the appendix content (in No. 5). If there are multiple appendices, they may be ordered “Appendix I:”, “Appendix II:”, “Appendix III:”…” Numbering.

14. Research results obtained during the degree
Research results during degree studies are research results related to a dissertation obtained by the degree applicant during the course of their degree. Including: major published and accepted academic papers, published and published monographs that have been decided to be published by the publisher; Major scientific research awards; Granted invention patents; Other important academic achievements.

15. Thanks
Acknowledgments are written expressions of gratitude from organizations or individuals whose authors have contributed to the formation of the graduation thesis, and the expression should be sincere, appropriate and concise.

2. Dissertation format
All dissertations should use the A4 size, which should be in the form of a book bound on the left, and must be bound and cut neatly for ease of use.
1. In principle, the dissertation is written in the professional language, except for the Chinese cover page, the original statement and the authorization to use, the abstract in Chinese/English, and Chinese references.

2. Titles such as “Chinese Abstract, English Abstract” in the paper should be in small two-size font (“Times New Roman” font for English should be used, bold; Those involving Chinese are bold, not bold; The headings are centered on the first line of the page, with 1 line of spacing before and after).
Content below the heading, including keywords, is also in small four-size font. The “Times New Roman” font is used for English and the “Times New Roman” font is used for Chinese, with a fixed line spacing of 22 points. Except for “Key Words:” and “Keywords:”, do not add bold.
English keywords except for proper nouns, letters are lowercase, each keyword is separated by semicolons (English half-width status), and punctuation marks are not marked after the last keyword; Chinese keywords are separated by semicolons (Chinese full-width status), and punctuation marks are not marked after the last keyword

3. Table of Contents: The chapters in the table of contents are generally arranged to level three, or to level four if there are many chapters. (The heading level in the body should generally not exceed four levels). The table of contents should include the introduction (or introduction), the main body of the thesis, conclusions, appendices, references, results achieved during the degree, acknowledgements, etc.
The table of contents is in Times New Roman font, where each chapter title is small four and bold, each section title is small four and not bold, and the beginning page number of each chapter is noted, the title and page number are connected by “…”, and the line spacing is a fixed value of 22 points, as shown below
Table of Contents (small two-size, bold, 1 line before and after the paragraph).
Abstract Error! Bookmark not defined.(small four-numbered, bold).
Chinese abstract Error! Bookmark not defined.(small four-size, bold).
Abbreviations/List of Tables Error! Bookmark not defined.
Chapter One Introduction——————————————-1 (small four, bold).
1.1 A General Statement ———————————————————- 1 (P4).
1.2 The Need for the Study ——————————————————- 1(小四号)
1.3 The Overall Structure of the Thesis —————————————- 3(小四号)
Chapter Two Literature Review—————————————— 4 (small four, bold).
2.1 Definitions of Key Terms—————————————————– 4(小四号)
2.1.1 Pitch, Length, and Loudness———————————————– 4
2.1.2 Prominence, Stress, and Accent——————————————- 5 (P4).
……
Sequence numbering of sections in each chapter of the main text:
section, written as: 1.1, 1.2…. ,2.1, 2.2… 。
sections, written as: 1.1.1, 1.1.2…. 。
The following subsections are ordered by Greek numerals in parentheses, such as (i), (ii)…. ; After that, letters are enclosed in parentheses, such as (a), (b) ,…; In addition, the examples in the text begin with (1), (2)…. Arrange the serial numbers until the last example; You can’t use (1), (2)…. , as this is a dedicated superscript serial number for footnotes or endnotes; The top and bottom of the example can be left blank on a blank line.
The title of the paper and the title of each chapter are in Times New Roman font No. 2, the title of each section is Times New Roman in bold font No. 4, and the English text is Times New Roman, and the Chinese is in the No. 4 Song font. The figures and table titles in the text are in the No. 5 Times News Roman font in English, and the No. 5 Song font is used in Chinese, both centered; The Chinese characters, legend descriptions, and table notes are in Times News Roman font No. 5 in English, and No. 5 Song script is used in Chinese.
All chapter titles are on a separate line, with a short space of 1 line before and after, and no punctuation at the end. Indent the first line of each natural paragraph by 4 English characters.

4. Identification of figures and tables: Both figures and tables are numbered in chapters, such as the first table of the first chapter is Table 1.1, the second table is Table 1.2, the first figure of the fifth chapter is Figure 5.1, and the second figure is Figure 5.2, etc.; However, note that the table order and table title are centered above the table, the table annotation is placed below the table, and the figure order and figure title are centered below the figure. Tables always use three-line tables. Auxiliary lines can be added to the three-line table to adapt to the needs of more complex tables.
Figures and tables should be matched with explanatory text, graphics cannot be displayed across pages, and tables are generally displayed on the same page.
Formulas are generally center-aligned, and formula numbers are enclosed in parentheses and right-aligned, with no lines in between.

5. Header: From the catalog page to the last page, each page must have a header, five-number characters, and center arrangement. The odd-numbered pages are “Graduate Student Name + Thesis Title (text can be abbreviated)”, and the even-numbered page is “Yangzhou University: PhD Thesis / MA Thesis / MEd Thesis / MTI Thesis” (Please choose according to your own major), margin 1.5cm, number five Times New Roman. The header is 2.0cm from the border, and the text content of the header is underlined with a single horizontal line, the line thickness is 0.75 points, and the line length is as wide as the page.

6. Page number: generally placed on the outside of the header. The page number of the main text should start from page 1, the part before the main text (excluding the cover) should be written in Roman letters (I., II., etc.), and the cover page, the statement of originality of the dissertation and the authorization to use should not be numbered.
7. English annotation and reference format requirements. Notes are scattered below the page as footnotes. For the format of the references, see Part IV “Intratextual citations and references”.
8. Unless otherwise specified, the whole text will be grid-free, with a fixed line spacing of 22 points, and no blank lines before and after the paragraph (adjusted by yourself in special cases).

3. Dissertation typesetting and printing requirements
Postgraduate dissertations are required to be written in Word software.
1. Papers page setup
Paper: Paper type is A4 (21.0 cm× 29.7cm) standard.
Core requirements: left margin: 26mm, right margin: 26mm, top margin: 30mm, bottom margin: 25mm. Gutter position: The gutters are on the left, and the gutters are 0mm away from the left.
Header distance border: 20mm, footer distance border: 17.5mm.
The size of the finished paper after binding is: width 200 mm, length 280 mm.
2. Printing requirements
(1) Double-sided printing, gluing.
(2) The cover of the paper adopts cloud paper, which is unified in the format of the whole university. The cover of the doctoral dissertation is dark red, the cover of the academic degree and master’s thesis is light blue, the cover of the professional degree and master’s thesis is light green, and the cover of the equivalent academic ability is light yellow.
(3) The words are thick and black, beautiful, clear and easy to read. If there are many color plates in the text, color printing can be considered if necessary.
(4) The inner pages of the paper are printed on high-quality paper with white shading (or watermark).

4. Citations and references in the text
Citations indicate the source, reflecting the author’s grasp of the field and academic attitude. The specifications cited are generally divided into MLA (Modern Language Association) and APA (American Psychological Association) according to different professional directions, the difference is in order, capitalization, Abbreviations, punctuation and other details. Dissertation writers should have a consistent format according to the requirements of MLA or APA (see literature citations for details).
Citations should be praised using parenthetical footnotes (generally without footnotes or endnotes). In the main text, parenthetical notes are part of the small sentence in which the quotation appears and must therefore be placed within punctuation at the end of the sentence, not outside the sentence, but also within quotation marks in the quotation mark of the quotation (see Figure 4.1).

Figure 4.1 : How to use the bracket clip in the body
Correct:
Her idea is further confirmed that “people think her odd and that nobody loves and admires her” (Fountain 33).

Error:
Her idea is further confirmed that “people think her odd and that nobody loves and admires her.” (Fountain 33)

Her idea is further confirmed that “people think her odd and that nobody loves and admires her (Fountain 33).”

4.1 Marking of citation sources (please refer to APA format for linguistics and translation direction; For literary directions, please refer to the MLA format).
Reference citation specifications should use MLA (the Modern Language Association) or APA (the American Psychological Association) depending on the professional direction ), according to general academic norms, the use of MLA for humanities papers and APA for natural science papers. As far as our dissertations are concerned, MLA is used for dissertations in literature and translation studies, and APA is used for dissertation degrees in other directions. Applicants should carefully read the corresponding specification manual. This section provides some examples for reference.
4.1.1 Citations in the text
Dissertations quoting other people’s views, methods, and remarks must indicate the source, and the method of parenthesis clamping should be used when indicating the source, and generally no footnotes or endnotes should be used.
4.1.1.1 Cite the views of the entire document
There are two cases when quoting an entire document (i.e., the whole book or the full text), one is when the author’s last name does not appear in the text, such as:
MLA:
Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (Taylor,1990).
WHAT:
Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (Taylor, 1990).
Another case is when the author’s last name already appears in the same sentence of the text, and the use of parenthetical clips is not required according to MLA specifications, such as:
MLA:
Taylor (1990) claims that Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing.
According to the APA specification, it is not necessary to repeat the author’s last name in the bracket bracket, such as :
WHAT:
Taylor claims that Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (1990).
If the author’s last name and year of publication already appear in the same sentence of the text, it is not necessary to use parenthetical brackets according to APA specifications, such as:
WHAT:
In a 1990 article, Taylor claims that Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing.
In papers written in English, Chinese works or journals cited only need to indicate the author’s surname in Hanyu Pinyin, and Chinese characters such as Chinese characters must not be used
MLA:
(Zhu 12)
WHAT:
(Zhang, 2005)
4.1.1.2 Cite specific ideas or texts in the literature
When citing a specific point of view or text in a document, the page number on which the point or paragraph appears must be indicated, and the absence of a page number is a manifestation of irregular citation in the document. For example:
MLA:
Ancient writers attributed the invention of the monochord to Pythagoras, who lived in the sixth century BC (Marcuse 197).
Monasteries in medieval Europe were not short of speculations about Greek inventions (Marcuse 190-203).
WHAT:
Emily Bronte “expressed increasing hostility for the world of human relationships, whether sexual or social” (Taylor, 1988: 11).
Newmark (1988: 39-40) notes three characteristically expressive text-types: (a) serious imaginative literature (e.g. lyrical poetry); (b) authoritative statements (political speeches and documents, statutes and legal documents, philosophical and academic works by acknowledged authorities); (c) autobiography, essays, personal correspondence (when these are personal effusions).
Note the method of page numbering when quoting more than one page in these examples: the MLA specification is (Marcuse 190-203) and the APA specification is (1988: 39-40).
If the author’s last name already appears in the same sentence in the text, it does not need to be repeated in parenthetical brackets, such as:
MLA:
Ancient writers, according to Marcuse, attributed the invention of the monochord to Pythagoras, who lived in the sixth century BC (197).
WHAT:
Taylor writes that Emily Bronte “expressed increasing hostility for the world of human relationships, whether sexual or social” (1988: 11).
4.1.1.3 Cite the same document written by multiple authors
MLA (two to three authors):
Among intentional spoonerisms, the “punlike metathesis of distinctive features may serve to weld together words etymologically unrelated but close in their sound and meaning” (Jakobson and Waugh 304).
(If there are three authors, separate their last names with commas in parenthetical inserts, e.g., (Alton, Davies, and Rice 56).) )
MLA (more than three authors):
The study was extended for two years, and only after results were reviewed by an independent panel did the researchers publish their findings (Blaine et al. 35).
APA (two authors):
Research (Yamada & Matsuura, 1982) reports the poor performance of advanced English learners who could use English articles correctly only in 70 percent of the cases.
(Note that “and” and “&” are used in parenthetical clips for both specifications.) )
APA (three to five authors).
First quote:
According to educational psychologists, raising children is a responsibility of the entire community (Franklin, Childs, & Smith, 1995).
Later references:
To be successful, “communities must be willing to take this responsibility” (Franklin et al., 1995: 135).
APA (more than five authors):
Patterns of byzantine intrigue have long plagued the internal politics of community college administration in Texas (Douglas et al., 2003)
4.1.1.4 Citing different authors with the same surname
If two or more authors have the same last name, the parenthetical bracket should also use the first letter of their first name, such as:
MLA:
Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).
WHAT:
Well-established SLA researchers (e.g., R. Ellis, 2002) seem rather skeptical of the assertion that repetition alone explains the development of the knowledge of a second language (N. Ellis, 2002).
Authors with the same surname are often cited in Chinese works or journals, and should be distinguished by using the first letter of their first name in brackets, such as:
MLA:
(S.R. Wang 26) (J.X. Wang 30)
WHAT:
(W.Y. Wang, 2003) (L.F. Wang, 2003: 213)
4.1.1.5 Citing corporate authors
When quoting the work of the author of the group, the name of the group should be used in the brackets, e.g. . .
MLA:
It was apparent that the American health care system needed “to be fixed and perhaps radically modified” (Public Agenda Foundation 4).
WHAT:
Retired officers retain access to all of the university’s educational and recreational facilities (Columbia University, 1987: 54).
4.1.1.6 Citation of unauthored literature
Citing unauthored documents, if the title of the document does not appear in the text, the title should be used in the bracket or (if the title is too long) the keyword group in the title, such as:
MLA:
An anonymous Wordsworth critic once argued that his poems were too emotional (“Wordsworth Is a Loser” 100).
WHAT:
(“Mad Cow,” 2001) or (Sleep Medicine, 2001).
When using keyword groups, you should choose the phrase at the beginning of the title.
Whether MLA or APA specifications, the titles of independent publications or the keyword groups in the titles are italicized, and the titles of the works contained in the publication and the titles of unpublished works (lectures, theses, etc.) or the keyword groups in the titles are marked in quotation marks.
4.1.1.7 Quote ideas or texts from letters, conversations
Correspondence and conversations (including e-mails, interviews, telephone calls, etc.) cannot be listed in the references that follow the text, but the source should be attributed using parenthetical brackets in the text. For example:

MLA:
Jesse Moore (telephone conversation, May 12, 1989) admitted the need for an in-depth analysis of the otherness expressed in the work.
WHAT:
Mira Ariel (e-mail, April 17, 2004) confirmed that accessibility marking played a crucial role in discourse organization.
Researchers may observe that Chinese English majors with no overseas experience often have a better command of English than American foreign language majors with no overseas experience have of the language they study (Eugene Nida, personal communication, November 8, 1986).
4.1.1.8 Cite multiple articles by the same author
According to the MLA specification, when citing multiple documents by the same author, the keyword group in the title of the document should be included in the bracket bracket, such as:
Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children (“Too Soon” 38), though he has acknowledged that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development (“Hand-Eye Development” 17).
or
Computers are not useful tools for small children (Lightenor, “Too Soon” 38), though he has acknowledged that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development (Lightenor, “Hand-Eye Development” 17).
or
Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children, though he has acknowledged that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development (“Too Soon” 38 and “Hand-Eye Development” 17).
According to the APA specification, different documents of the same author can be distinguished by the year of publication, such as:
(Zhang, 1997)
(Zhang, 1999)
(Zhang, 2004)
Parentheses can also indicate multiple articles by the same author, arranged in the order of publication, e.g.
(Zhang, 1997, 1999, 2004)
Documents published in the same year should be distinguished by adding letters to the year (the same letter should be added to the year in the corresponding entry in the bibliography after the text), e.g. .
(Bloom, 2003a, 2003b)
4.1.1.9 Cite multiple articles by different authors at the same time
The parenthetical foothold can include multiple documents by different authors, arranged alphabetically by author’s last name (note the use of semicolons), e.g.,
MLA:
The dangers of mountain lions to humans have been well documented (Rychnovsky 40; Seidensticker 114; Williams 30).
WHAT:
Distance from health care providers, lack of transportation, lack of health care providers, lack of information about the disease and various treatment options, poverty and social isolation due to geography are all factors which affect treatment decisions of rural clients (Brown, 2001; Sullivan, Weinert & Fulton, 1993; Weinert & Burman, 1994).
In the MLA specification, if multiple articles by different authors are too lengthy, footnotes are used instead of parenthesis clips (see Section 3.). Section 1.1.12).
4.1.1.10 Citing indirect sources
Papers should avoid using indirect documents (i.e., secondary sources) as much as possible, but citations can be extracted from indirect documents in cases where direct documents (i.e., primary sources) cannot be found, e.g
MLA:
Samuel Johnson admitted that Edmund Burke was an “extraordinary man” (qtd. in Boswell 2: 450).
(Note: “qtd The letter “i” in “in” must not be capitalized. )
WHAT:
Grayson (as cited in Murzynski & Degelman, 1996: 135) identified four components of body language that were related to judgments of vulnerability.
One researcher (Grayson, as cited in Murzynski & Degelman, 1996: 135) identified four components of body language that were related to judgments of vulnerability.
After citing an indirect document, only the entry for the indirect document (i.e., “Boswell” and “Murzynski & Degelman, 1996” in the above example) needs to be included in the post-text bibliography.
4.1.1.11 Citation of literary works and classic documents
According to the MLA specification, there are several cases in which page numbers are not marked in parenthetical brackets.
When quoting the script, the scene, scene, and line of the quotation should be marked, such as:
In his famous advice to players, Shakespeare’s Hamlet defines the purpose of theater, “whose end, both at the first and now, was and is, to hold, as ‘twere, the mirror up to nature” (3.2.21-23).
The bracketed notes here indicate that the quotation is from lines 21 to 23 of the second scene of Act III of the play. (Pay attention to the use of punctuation.) )
When quoting a poem, the stanza and line of the quotation should be marked, such as:
When Homer’s Odysseus comes to the hall of Circe, he finds his men “mild / in her soft spell, fed on her drug of evil” (10.209-11).
The bracketed notes here indicate that the quotation comes from lines 209 to 211 of verse 10 of the poem. The first quotation of an unsectional poem should indicate that the number of lines in parentheses is indicated and “line” should be used, and subsequent quotations should not be specified. For example:
First quote: (lines 5-8).
Later citations: (12-13).
When quoting a novel with chapters or volumes, indicate the page number, number of volumes, and chapters where the citation is located, such as:
One of Kingsolver’s narrators, teenager Rachel, pushes her vocabulary beyond its limits. For example, Rachel complains that being forced to live in the Congo with her missionary family is “a sheer tapestry of justice” because her chances of finding a boyfriend are “dull and void” (117; bk. 2, ch. 10).
The bracketed notes in the example indicate that the quotation is from page 117 of Chapter 10 of Book II. (Note the use of punctuation and abbreviations.) )
When quoting classic documents such as the Bible and the Koran, the passages, chapters, and verses of the quotation should be marked, such as:
Consider the words of Solomon: “If your enemies are hungry, give them food to eat. If they are thirsty, give them water to drink” (Bible, Prov. 25.21).
The bracketed notes in the example indicate that the quotation is from the Old Testament Proverbs chapter 25 verse 21. The abbreviations of the various parts of the Bible have a standard way of writing, so you should check them when using them.
4.1.1.12 Use of footnotes
In MLA specifications, footnotes should only be considered in the following two situations: (1) to provide explanatory information of some importance but whose inclusion in the main text would be detrimental to the structure and logic of the text; (2) Provide information on the source of literature that should not be indicated by parentheses and notes due to excessive length. In the APA specification, footnotes can only be used in the first case above. Footnotes should be numbered with Arabic numerals and start again on each page. In the following two examples, the former is the first case and the latter is the second case:
The commentary of the sixteenth-century literary scholars Bernardo Segni and Lionardo Salviati shows them to be less-than-faithful followers of Aristotle1.
….
Technological advancements have brought advantages as well as unexpected problems2.

————————————— Notes
1 Examples are conveniently available in Weinberg. See Segni, Rettorica et poetica d’Aristotile (Firenze, 1549) 281, qtd. in Weinberg 1:405, and Salviati, Poetica d’Aristotle parafrasata e comnetata, 1586, ms. 2.2.11, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Firenze, 140v, qtd. in Weinberg 1:616-17.
2 For a sampling of materials that reflect the range of experiences related to recent technological changes, see Moulthrop, pars. 39-53; Armstrong, Yang, and Cuneo 80-82; Craner 308-11.
(In the second example, “Moulthrop, pars. “pars” in 39-53″ refers to “paragraph”, that is, paragraph. )
The literature mentioned in the footnote, as mentioned in the main text, must be noted in detail in the bibliography at the end of the text.
Footnotes use single spacing, and the font of the footnote must be the same as the body text.

4.2 Arrangement of references after the text (please refer to APA format for linguistics and translation; For literary directions, please refer to the MLA format).
Bibliography is called Works Cited in the MLA specification and References in the APA specification. This section provides only some bibliographic examples for reference.
References are on a separate page and only list the documents cited in the text. The slogan “Works Cited” or “References” is centered, with one line before and after the paragraph, bolded with Times New Roman. The top frame of each entry, if an entry is more than one line, is “hangingly indented” by 2 characters from the second line . All English punctuation and symbols in the reference are entered in English, with a blank space after the punctuation. Chinese references, enter symbols in the Chinese state, punctuation does not require spaces.
Reference entries are arranged alphabetically by author’s last name (Chinese surnames are in their Hanyu Pinyin). You can use the “Sort” option in the “Table” function of the Microsoft Word software to automatically sort all entries in foreign languages and Chinese.
Chinese and foreign literature is arranged separately, with foreign languages first and Chinese last.
Literature of the same author in different years of publication is arranged in the order of publication time, publications of the same year are arranged in the order of the first word of the title of the document, and a b c is added in order after publication to show the distinction.
4.2.1 Bibliography of published articles
4.2.1.1 Articles written by one author
MLA:
Stewart, Donald C. “What Is an English Major, and What Should It Be?” College Composition and Communication 40 (1989): 188-202.
WHAT:
Roediger, H. L. (1990). Implicit memory: A commentary. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 28: 373-380.
In practice, please note the following points
1) In MLA specifications, the author’s name should be complete, and the full name of the first name and the initial letter of the middle name should be indicated. In APA, the author’s first and middle names should be initials.
2) In the MLA specification, there is no comma between the journal name and the number of journal volumes.
3) According to MLA specifications , the first word of the title and the first word after the colon must be capitalized, and the first letter of every remaining word must be capitalized except for articles , prepositions , juxtaposed conjunctions , and infinitive symbols ( ” to ” ) . According to the APA specification, the first word of the title and the first word after the colon must be capitalized, and the first letter of every remaining word, except for proper nouns, does not need to be capitalized.
4.2.1.2 Articles written by two authors
MLA:
Brownell, Hiram H., and Heather H. Potter. “Inference Deficits in Right-Brain Damaged Patients.” Brain and Language 27 (1986): 310-21.
WHAT:
Tulving, E., & Schacter, D. L. (1990). Priming and human memory systems. Science, 247: 301-305.
4.2.1.3 Articles written by two or more authors
MLA:
Mascia-Lees, Frances E., Pat Sharpe, and Colleen B. Cohen. “Double Liminality and the Black Woman Writer.” American Behavioral Scientist 31 (1987): 101-14.
WHAT:
Barringer, H. R., Takeuchi, D. T., & Xenos, P. C. (1990). Education, occupational prestige and income of Asian Americans: Evidence from the 1980 Census. Sociology of Education, 63: 27-43.
Whether using MLA or APA, the first author begins with the last name (with a comma), followed by the first name or initials, but begins with the second author In the MLA specification, it starts with a first name, followed by a last name, and in the APA specification, it starts with a last name (with a comma), Followed by the initials of the first name.
If the number of authors exceeds three, consider retaining only the first author’s name, plus et al (Latin “and others”), as in:
MLA:
Mascia-Lees, Frances E., et al. “Double Liminality and the Black Woman Writer.” American Behavioral Scientist 31 (1987): 101-14.
WHAT:
Barringer, H. R. et at. (1990). Education, occupational prestige and income of Asian Americans: Evidence from the 1980 Census. Sociology of Education, 63: 27-43.
4.2.1.4 Book reviews, film reviews, TV program reviews, etc
MLA:
Kidd, John. “The Scandal of Ulysses.” Rev. of Ulysses: The Corrected Text, by Hans Walter Gabler. New York Review of Books 30 June 1988: 32-39.
WHAT:
Falk, J. S. (1990). [Review of Narratives from the crib]. Language, 66: 558-562.
4.2.1.5 Selection from an edited book
MLA:
Glover, David. “The Stuff That Dreams Are Made Of: Masculinity, Femininity, and the Thriller.” Gender, Genre and Narrative Pleasure. Ed. Derek Longhurst. London: Unwin Hyman, 1989. 67-83.
WHAT:
Wilson, S. F. (1990). Community support and integration: New directions for outcome research. In S. Rose (Ed.), Case management: An overview and assessment. White Plains, NY: Longman, 13-42.
Illustrate:
1) “Ed.” Represents “Compilation”.
2) In the MLA specification, the editor’s first and last name of the book are used in full, and in the APA specification, the editor’s last name is used in full and the first name is used.
4.2.1.5 Articles in magazines
MLA:
Miller, Mark Crispen. “Massa, Come Home.” New Republic 16 Sept. 1981: 29-32.
WHAT:
Gibbs, N. (1989, April 24). How America has run out of time. Time, 58-67.
Note: Articles in bibliographic journals should indicate the date of publication of the journal.
4.2.1.6 Articles in newspapers
MLA:
“Literacy on the job.” USA Today 27 Dec. 1988: 6B.
WHAT:
Freudenheim, M. (1987, December 29). Rehabilitation in head injuries in business and helath. New York Times, D2.
4.2.1.7 An entry in an encyclopedia
MLA:
Mohanty, Jitendra M. “Indian Philosophy.” The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia. 15th ed. 1987.
WHAT:
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
4.2.1.8 A government publication
MLA:
United States. Natl. Council on Disability. Promises to Keep: A Decade of Federal Enforcement of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Washington: GPO, 2000.
WHAT:
National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
4.2.2 Bibliography of published books
4.2.2.1 Books written by one author
MLA:
Graff, Gerald. Professing Literature: An Institutional History. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1987.
WHAT:
Rossi, P. H. (1989). Down and out in America: The origins of homelessness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Note: The case rules for book titles are different in different specifications.
4.2.2.2 新版书(Book with a new edition)
MLA:
Erikson, Erik. Childhood and Society. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 1963.
WHAT:
Kail, R. (1990). Memory development in children (3rd ed.). New York: Freeman.
4.2.2.3 Books written by corporate authors
MLA:
College Board. College-bound Seniors: 1989 SAT Profile. New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1989.
WHAT:
American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
4.2.2.4 Book with no author
MLA:
Guidelines for the Workload of College English Teacher. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1987.
WHAT:
Standards for educational and psychological tests. (1985). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
4.2.2.5 Edited books
MLA:
Kerckhove, Derrick de, and Charles J. Lumsden, eds. The Alphabet and the Brain: The Lateralization of Writing. Berlin Springer-¬Verlag, 1988.
WHAT:
Campbell, J. P., Campbell, R. J., & Associates. (Eds.). (1988). Productivity in organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
4.2.2.6 Translated books
MLA:
Lacan, Jacques. Ecrits: A Selection. Trans. Alan Sheridan. New York: Norton, 1977.
WHAT:
Michotte, A. E. (1963). The perception of causality (T. R. Miles & E. Miles, Trans.). London: Methuen. (Original work published 1946)
Note that in both norms, the translator’s first and last names do not need to change the order.
4.2.2.7 Republished book
MLA:
Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God. 1937. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1978.
WHAT:
Ebbinghaus, H. (1964). Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology. New York: Dover. (Original work published 1885; translated 1913)
4.2.3 Bibliographic documents that have not yet been officially published
4.2.3.1 Master’s or doctoral dissertation (Dissertation).
MLA:
Hubert, Henry Allan. “The Development of English Studies in Nineteenth-Century Anglo- Canadian Colleges.” Diss. U of British Columbia, 1988.
WHAT:
Thompson, L. (1988). Social perception in negotiation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.
4.2.3.2 Conference paper
MLA:
Moffett, James. “Censorship and Spiritual Education.” The Right to Literacy Conference. Columbus, Ohio, September 1988.
WHAT:
Hogan, R., Raskin, R., & Fazzini, D. (1988, October). The dark side of charisma. Paper presented at the Conference on Psychological Measures and Leadership, San Antonio, TX.
4.2.3.3 Research Reports
MLA:
Flower, Linda. The Role of Task Representation in Reading to Write. Technical Report No. 3. Berkeley: Center for the Study of Writing at U of California, Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon U, 1987.
WHAT:
Elman, J., & Zipser, D. (1987). Learning the hidden structure of speech (Report No. 8701). Institute for Cognitive Science, University of California, San Diego.
4.2.3.4 A brochure
MLA:
Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Dept. of Jury Commissioner. A Few Facts about Jury Duty. Boston: Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1997.
WHAT:
Research and Training Center on Independent Living. (1993). Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities (4th ed.) [Brochure]. Lawrence, KS: Author.
4.2.4 Bibliographic non-printed materials
4.2.4.1 Film or video
MLA:
High Fidelity. Dir. Stephen Frears. Perf. John Cusack, Iben Hjejle, Jack Black, and Todd Louiso. 2000. Videocassette. Walt Disney Video, 2001.
Entries begin with the film name (in italics) and are followed by the director’s name (placed in “Dir.”). after) and the names of the main actors (put in “Perf.” After that), then the name of the issuer and the year of issue. In the case of videotapes or DVDs, “Videocassette” or “DVD” should be indicated before the name of the distributor.
WHAT:
Smith, J.D. (Producer), & Smithee, A.F. (Director). (2001). Really Big Disaster Movie [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.
If a film or video is recorded for informal distribution, the place where the film or video is collected should be reported, such as:
WHAT:
Harris, M. (Producer), & Turley, M. J. (Director). (2002). Writing Labs: A History [Motion picture]. (Available from Purdue University Pictures, 500 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907)
4.2.4.2 A Radio/Television Broadcast/Series
MLA:
“Monkey Trial.” American Experience. PBS. WGBH, Boston. 18 Mar. 2003.
WHAT:
Important, I.M. (Producer). (1990, November 1). The Nightly News Hour. [Television broadcast]. New York: Central Broadcasting Service.
Bellisario, D.L. (Producer). (1992). Exciting Action Show. [Television series]. Hollywood: American Broadcasting Company.
A Single Episode of a Television Series
MLA:
Mysteries of the Pyramids. On the Inside. Discovery Channel. 7 Feb. 2001.
WHAT:
Wendy, S. W. (Writer), & Martian, I.R. (Director). (1986). The rising angel and the falling ape. [Television series episode]. In D. Dude (Producer), Creatures and monsters. Los Angeles: Belarus Studios.
Whether it is an MLA or APA specification, the title of the episode is not italics or quotation marks.
4.2.4.3 A music recording
MLA:
Bizet, Georges. Carmen. Perf. Jennifer Laramore, Thomas Moser, Angela Gheorghiu, and Samuel Ramey. Bavarian State Orch. and Chorus. Cond. Giuseppe Sinopoli. Warner, 1996.
Chapman, Tracy. “Paper and Ink.” Telling Stories. Elektra, 2000.
Entries begin with the name of the composer, conductor, performer, and if the piece is longer, the title of the work (in italics), followed by other performers and musicians; If the work is a song, the song title is enclosed in quotation marks, followed by the name of the album or songbook (in italics). Finally, the publisher and year of publication
WHAT:
Songwriter, W. W. (Date of copyright). Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from song writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright date)
Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. London: Big Pig Music Limited.
In this example, “Taupin” is the singer, “(1975)” is the date the copyright was obtained, and “Someone saved my life tonight” “Elton John” was the recording artist, “On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy” is the name of the songbook, and “CD” indicates that the songbook is a disc. Finally, there is the place of publication and the publisher.
4.2.5 Bibliographic works and articles in Chinese
Punctuation marks in Chinese writings and articles use full-width symbols in the Chinese state. Citations Chinese journal articles must indicate the page number on which the article appears. Chinese in the entry must not use italics.
MLA:
(i) Monographs:
(a) Basic Formula
Zhou Xiaoyi, Aestheticism and Consumer Culture. Beijing: Peking University Press, 2002.
Zhou Zuoren, “Children’s Literature Essay on the Origins of New Chinese Literature”. Shijiazhuang: Hebei Education Press, 2001.
(b) Editor-in-Chief of the book
Institute of Language Teaching, Beijing Language and Culture Institute (ed.), Research Materials on Modern Chinese Complements. Beijing: Beijing Language Institute Press, 1992.
(c) Translated works
Quark • Randolph, Sidney Smith Goeringbaum, Jeffrey Smith Leach, Jane Swartwick, A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, translated by Wang Guofu, He Hading, Zhu Ye and others. Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, 1985/1989.
Saussure, Ferdinand Duc, Cours de linguistique générale (General Linguistics Course), Shah Barry, A Xue Shilian, A Edited by Ridlinger, translated by Gao Mingkai, edited by Cen Qixiang and Ye Fengsheng. Beijing: Commercial Press, 1949/1985.
Zhao Yuanren, A Grammar of Spoken Chinese, translated by Ding Bang. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Chinese University Press, 1968/1980.
(d) Dissertations
Zu Shengli, Yuan Dynasty vernacular inscription research, doctoral dissertation. Beijing: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 2000.
(ii) Articles:
(a) Periodicals: basic format of articles
Wen Qiufang, Ding Yanren, Wang Wenyu, Colloquial Tendency in Chinese College Students’ Written English, Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 2003(2): 268-274.
(b) Articles in the proceedings
Zhang Bojiang, deepening the understanding of Chinese grammatical facts. In Commercial Press Editorial Department (ed.), Chinese Chinese Linguistics in the 21st Century. Beijing: Commercial Press, 2004: 135-142.
Wen Qiufang, The changing laws and characteristics of English learners’ motivation, concepts and strategies. Zaiwen Qiufang and Wang Lifei, An Empirical Study of English Learning Strategies, Xi’an: Shaanxi Normal University Press, 2003a: 255-259.
Wen Qiufang has been studying English learning strategies in China for 20 years. Zaiwen Qiufang and Wang Lifei, An Empirical Study of English Learning Strategies, Xi’an: Shaanxi Normal University Press, 2003b: 1-34.
(c) Conference Papers:
Cui Xiliang, Event Modality and the Chinese Representation System. Paper of the 12th Symposium on Modern Chinese Grammar, April 2002, Changsha, Hunan.
(d) Dictionaries:
The Dictionary Editing Office of the Institute of Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (ed.), The Contemporary Chinese Dictionary (bilingual in Chinese and English), translation editor of the Bilingual Dictionary Editing Office of the Department of Linguistics and Dictionary of the Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2002.
(e) Newspaper articles:
Tian Zhiling, The Embarrassment of The Lord of the Rings and the Crisis of Literary Translation, Southern Metropolis Daily, 2005-8-24.

WHAT:
(a) Basic Formula
Lü Shuxiang and Zhu Dexi (1952), Speech on Grammar and Rhetoric. Beijing: China Youth Publishing House.
Wang Li (1980), Preliminary Phonology. Beijing: Commercial Press.
(b) Editor-in-Chief of the book
Institute of Language Teaching, Beijing Language and Culture Institute (ed.) (1992), Research Materials of Modern Chinese Complements. Beijing: Beijing Language Institute Press.
(c) Translated works
Quark • Randolph, Sidney Smith Goeringbaum, Jeffrey Smith Leach, Jane Swatwick (1985/1989), A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, translated by Wang Guofu, He Hading, Zhu Ye and others. Shanghai: East China Normal University Press
Saussure, Ferdinand de (1949/1985), Cours de linguistique générale (General Linguistics Course), Cha Francis Barry, A Xue Shilian, A Edited by Ridlinger, translated by Gao Mingkai, edited by Cen Qixiang and Ye Fengsheng. Beijing: Commercial Press.
Zhao Yuanren (1968/1980), A Grammar of Spoken Chinese, translated by Ding Bangxin. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Chinese University Press.
(d) Dissertations
Zu Shengli (2000), Yuan Dynasty vernacular inscription research, doctoral dissertation. Beijing: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
(ii) Articles:
(a) Periodicals: basic format of articles
Wen Qiufang, Ding Yanren, and Wang Wenyu (2003), Colloquial Tendency in Written English of Chinese College Students, Foreign Language Teaching and Research (2): 268-74.
(b) Articles in the proceedings
Zhang Bojiang (2004), Deepening the understanding of Chinese grammatical facts. In Commercial Press Editorial Department (ed.), Chinese Chinese Dialectology in the 21st Century. Beijing: Commercial Press, 135-142.
Wen Qiufang (2003a), Changes in motivation, concepts and strategies of English learners. Zaiwen Qiufang and Wang Lifei, An Empirical Study of English Learning Strategies, Xi’an: Shaanxi Normal University Press, 255-259.
Wen Qiufang (2003b), 20 years of research on Chinese English learning strategies. Zaiwen Qiufang and Wang Lifei, An Empirical Study of English Learning Strategies, Xi’an: Shaanxi Normal University Press, 1-34.
(c) Conference Papers:
Cui Xiliang (2002), Event modality and the Chinese system of representation. Paper of the 12th Symposium on Modern Chinese Grammar, April 2002, Changsha, Hunan.
(d) Dictionaries:
Dictionary Editing Office, Institute of Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 2002, The Contemporary Chinese Dictionary (Chinese-English bilingual), Translation Editor of Bilingual Dictionary Editing Office, Department of Linguistics and Dictionary, Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
(e) Newspaper articles:
Tian Zhiling, 2005, The Embarrassment of The Lord of the Rings and the Crisis of Literary Translation, Southern Metropolis Daily, 2005-8-24.
4.2.6 Bibliographic Web Publications
Bibliographic online publications must indicate the date the publication was uploaded and the date of retrieval by the author of the paper, and indicate the web address.
4.2.6.1 Articles in online journals
 The acquisition time and acquisition source are given.
 If the information was obtained from the Internet, the date and URL of the acquisition should be given.
 If the URL in the entry needs to break the line break, it must be after “/” or “.” Previously, no spaces could appear in the URL.
 If it’s a URL, don’t put a dot at the end.
 The date of acquisition in English is month, day, year, and the format is “June 26, 2006”; Chinese is written in the format “2008-07-02”.
 In the MLA format, URLs are marked with angle brackets, and in the APA format, Retrieved from is written in English and Chinese, and “taken from” is written .
 For Chinese literature, please refer to MLA and APA Chinese works and article formats and combine the bibliographic requirements of online literature, for example:
MLA:
Wang Yuechuan, Internet Culture and TV Criticism in Contemporary Media, 2004, 2008-07-03
WHAT:
Wang Yuechuan (2004), Internet Culture and TV Criticism in Contemporary Media, 2008-07-03 from http://www.blocchina.com/new/disp lay/58592.html/
A. Electronic version of the paper-printed periodical
MLA:
Bleich, Eric. “From International Ideas to Domestic Policies: Educational Multiculturalism in England and France.” Comparative Politics 31.1 (Oct. 1998): 6 pp. Expanded Academic ASAP. Middlebury College 2 Aug. 2003 .
In this example, “6 pp.” Indicates that the article has 6 pages, “Expanded Academic ASAP. Middlebury College” is the name of the web page, and “2 Aug. 2003” is the date the author of the paper looked up online.
WHAT:
VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123. Retrieved Oct. 13, 2001, from http://jbr.org/articles.html
The APA specification does not use any punctuation at the end of entries when bibliographic web publications.

B. Journals with only online version
MLA:
Burka, Lauren P. “A Hypertext History of Multi-User Dimensions.” MUD History. 1996. 2 Aug. 1996 .
WHAT:
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved Nov. 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre01a.html
In this example, “Article 0001a” is the article serial number on the web page.
4.2.6.2 Articles in the electronic version of the newspaper
MLA:
Verhovek, Sam Howe. “Microsofts Might Be Better Than One.” The New York Times. 1 May 2000. 3 June 2001 .
WHAT:
Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2000, from http:// www.nytimes.com
4.2.6.3 Stand-alone document on the network
MLA:
Eilola, John. “Little Machines: Rearticulating Hypertext Users.” 3 Dec. 1994. 14 Aug 1996 .
WHAT:
GVU’s 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from http://www . cc.gatech . edu/ gvu/usersurveys/survey1997-10/
If the page does not provide an author name, the entry begins with the page name or file name. “(n.d.) indicates that the page did not provide an upload date.
4.2.6.4 Literature on the University’s website
MLA:
Felluga, Dino. Undergraduate Guide to Literary Theory. 17 Dec. 1999. Purdue University. 15 Nov. 2000 .
WHAT:
Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved August 24, 2000, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies Web site: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/ publications/papers.html
4.2.6.5 Information from online newsgroups, forums, or discussion groups
Bibliographic information from web discussion boards, entries must use their real names if they provide their real names, otherwise use the names used by the author in the discussion board. Entries must provide the specific date of upload, subject line, thread of the message, etc.
MLA:
Stevens, Melissa. “Take Our Daughters to Work Day.” Online posting. 24 Apr. 2001. Career and Workplace Issues Forum. 2 May 2001 .
WHAT:
Weylman, C. R. (2001, September 4). Make news to achieve positive press [Msg. 98]. Message posted to http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ sales-marketing-tips/message/98
Note: The date of the online inquiry of the author of the paper can not be indicated here.
4.2.6.6 Online reference source
MLA:
“Fresco.” Britannica Online. Vers. 98.2. April 1998. Encyclopedia Britannica. 8 May 1998 .
Note: In this example, “Vers. 98.2” is the edition, “April 1998” is the publication date, and “Encyclopedia Britannica” is the publisher.
WHAT:
Encyclopedia Britannica. (April 1998). Fresco. In Britannica Online (Vers. 98.2). Retrieved May 8, 1998, from http://www.eb.com:180.

5. Format specification
5.1 Spaces, capitalization, punctuation
5.1.1 Correct use of spaces
A basic requirement for the correct use of English is to be able to correct spaces, and papers that cannot correct spaces according to English text specifications are not qualified papers. Frequent errors can be seen in Figure 5.1.
Figure 5.1: Some examples of incorrect spaces
That’s right:
These figures indicate that the participants were in good command of Type One rules.

That’s right:
2. What are the major reasons for the misuse of articles by Chinese EFL learners? Mistake:
These figures indicate that the participants were in good command of Type1 rules.

Mistake:
2.What are the major reasons for the misuse of articles by Chinese EFL learners?

That’s right:
People (Kharma, 1981; Mizuno, 1985) have attributed the lower error rates to learners’ avoidance of uncertain uses of articles. Mistake:
People (Kharma, 1981; Mizuno, 1985)have attributed the lower error rates to learners’ avoidance of uncertain uses of articles.

That’s right:
Master (1987, 1988) also found that “the” was overused in the same environment. Mistake:
Master (1987,1988) also found that “the” was overused in the same environment.

That’s right:
Hakuta (1976) found two types of error in the subjects’ article usage and he termed them “error of omission” and “error of commission.” Mistake:
Hakuta (1976) found two types of error in the subjects’ article usage and he termed them “error of omission ” and “ error of commission.”
At the end of the sentence, empty one square after punctuation, not two squares.
5.1.2 Use case correctly
When using ordinal units in papers, the first letter of the unit name should be capitalized (see Figure 4.2).
Figure 4.2: Correct format for unit names
Correct:
Rules frequently cited by the interviewees are summed up in Table 3.9.
Correct:
The results show that Group 1 outperformed Group 2. Error:
Rules frequently cited by the interviewees are summed up in table 3.9.

Error:
The results show that group 1 outperformed group 2.

The first letter of the first word of any title must be capitalized. If the clause after a colon is a complete sentence, the first letter of the first word of the clause must be capitalized.

5.1.3 Use concatenation symbols correctly
When two or three authors appear in the bracket insert, the ligature “and” should be used in the MLA specification and the hyphen “&” () in the APA specification ampersand)。 The connecting symbol “&” must not appear in the text (see Figure 5.3).
Figure 5.3: Use of connection symbols

That’s right:
Yamada and Matsuura (1982) also reported the poor performance of some advanced Japanese college students who could use English articles correctly only in 70 percent of the cases. Mistake:
Yamada & Matsuura (1982) also reported the poor performance of some advanced Japanese college students who could use English articles correctly only in 70 percent of the cases.
5.1.4 Proper use of italics
(1) Linguistic examples, that is, words referred to as words and letters quoted as letters can be indicated in italics. Words should not be represented in capital letters or another font (see Figure 5.4).

Figure 5.4: Use of italics
Correct:
Many people, even Shaw, spelled Shakespeare without the final e.

Correct:
Difficult words such as sphinx were explained in Chinese.

Correct:
Twelve of the 30 participants in Group 2 could not correctly pronounce building. Error:
Many people, even Shaw, spelled Shakespeare without the final “e.”

Error:
Difficult words such as SPHINX were explained in Chinese.

Error:
Twelve of the 30 participants in Group 2 could not correctly pronounce building.

(2) The names of independent publications (including books, newspapers, magazines, periodicals, scripts, films, software, etc.) are marked in italics, such as Contemporary History of China (books), Wall Street Journal (newspaper), Star Trek film), but the names of works included in publications and the names of unpublished works (lectures, theses, etc.) are marked in quotation marks, such as, “The.” Lottery” (short story), “London” (poetry), “How to succeed in an interview” (Speech).
(3) Latin quoted in the text other than English should be italized.
(4) Statistical symbols should use italics, such as “t test”.
(5) The number of volumes of journals in the APA specification (excluding the number of volumes in the volume) should be italics, such as “Language Learning, 23, 1”.
(6) Italics in Hanyu Pinyin.
5.1.5 Use quotation marks correctly
Quotation marks are used when (1) include quotations in the body; (2) used when quoting the titles of works contained in independent publications and the names of unpublished works (lectures, theses, etc.) (see previous section); (3) Use of slang, ironic or fabricated words in the first quotation in the text (but no quotation marks are used at the beginning of the second quotation), such as:
Researchers in the West consider them learners’ “normal” behavior. However, there is little evidence that such normal behavior can be found in Chinese university students.

Linguistic examples in papers are indicated in italics rather than in quotation marks.
Quotation paragraphs in the paper must not be marked in quotation marks.
5.1.6 Avoid using contractions
The text must not use colloquial style, and no abbreviations, i.e. “it is”, “I am” instead of “it’s” or “I’m”.
5.2 Use of Numbers
(1) If the paper written in English focuses on literature research and does not need to use many numbers, then use English spelling numbers that can be represented by one or two words, such as:
eight forty seven three hundred one thousand
The remaining numbers are represented by Arabic numerals, such as “301”, “111”, etc. If the paper is empirical and requires the use of a large number of numbers, the numbers from “0” to “9” in the body must be spelled in English, and numbers 10 and above must be represented in Arabic numerals, but the numbers in the chart are used for mathematics, Numbers in statistical operations and numbers structurally associated with numbers above 10 are still represented in Arabic numerals even if they are less than 10, such as:
25 words, including 8 verbs, 10 nouns, 7 adjectives
in 4 of the 22 cases studied…
(2) The number before the quantifier must be represented by Arabic numerals, such as: “5 lbs.” 。
(3) The numbers in dates, addresses, and page numbers must be represented by Arabic numerals.
(4) Large numbers can be represented by both spelling and Arabic numerals, such as: “$2 million”.
(5) The number at the beginning of the sentence must be spelled in English (see Figure 4.5).
Figure 5.5: Treatment of the opening digit
Correct:
One hundred and thirty four students of a natural class participated in the study. Error:
134 students of a natural class participated in the study.
5.3 References to non-English phrases
Papers written in English must be understandable to native English readers, so words and phrases quoted in the paper in Chinese or other languages should be explained.
Papers that specialize in translation and language comparison often have entire paragraphs of non-English citations, and the English translation of the citation should be placed in a place where the context reader can easily find it. Non-English quotations and their English translations shall be treated as quotation paragraphs, arranged in the format of quotation paragraphs, without quotation marks. Chinese citations in the main text should provide an English translation. Such as:
Confucius was quoted in The Analects as saying, “学而时习之,不亦乐乎” (“Learning with frequent reviewing, what a pleasure this is”)!
Quotations for large Chinese should be Chinese two quotation paragraphs, i.e. the original text and the English translation. English translations must also be attributed if they are quotations.
In addition to the use of non-English quotations throughout the paragraph, any non-English phrase or phrase (excluding foreign words in English) must be translated into English, enclosed in quotation marks and parentheses. Quotation marks should be used if the words and sentences in Chinese or other non-Latin languages in the paper are citations, but quotation marks (let alone italics) should not be used if they are linguistic examples. Words and phrases in Latin other than English should be italicized, and quotation marks should be added when they are quotations, otherwise no quotation marks. See Figure 5.5.
Figure 5.5: Format of English translation of non-English phrases or words
Correct:
Learners of Spanish tend to overuse certain idiomatic expressions, e.g., irse todo en humo (“to go up in smoke”).

Correct:
Some translators emphasized the concept of 信 (“faithfulness”). Error:
Learners of Spanish tend to overuse certain idiomatic expressions, e.g., “irse todo en humo” (“to go up in smoke”).

Error:
Some translators emphasized the concept of “信” (“faithfulness”).

English affixes should not be added to Chinese or other non-Latin written languages appearing in the paper (see Figure 5.6).
Figure 5.6: Correct use of English affixes
Correct:
In Chinese, using 好 (“fine”) several times is not necessarily an emphatic device. Error:
In Chinese, using several 好’s (“fine”) is not necessarily an emphatic device.

5.4 Reporting of statistics
When reporting the results, the authors of papers using statistical methods in the research should first report the results describing the statistics, namely: mean, standard deviation, etc., in accordance with the norms of statistical reports, and then report the results of inference statistics, which should include degrees of freedom and significance levels. The chart generated by the computer software during the inference process is generally not necessary to be printed, and if necessary, it can be placed in the appendix of the paper. Figure 5.7 shows some examples of inferred statistical results reported in the text.

Figure 5.7: Specification for reporting inferred statistical results

Example:
The effect of age was not statistically significant, F(1, 123) = 2.45, p = .12.

Example:
An examination of the number of hours of television viewing and the frequency of aggressive acts for each of the 60 children revealed a positive or direct correlation between television viewing and instances of aggressive behavior. An analysis using Pearson’s correlation coefficient supported this observation, r(58) = .63, p < .001.

Example:
The control group (M = 14.1) remembered more words on the memory test than the drugged group (M = 12.3). This difference was tested using an independent groups t test, and was shown to be nonsignificant, t(18) = 1.23, p = .283. Thus, the data fail to support the notion of a drug effect on memory.

Example:
The mean scores for the short, medium, and long retention intervals were 5.9, 10.3, and 14.2, respectively. A one way analysis of variance revealed a significant effect of retention interval, F(2, 34) = 123.07, p < .001.

Example:
While 60% of the males agreed that their map reading skills were strong, only 35% of the females did. A 2 x 2 Chi Square analysis revealed that this was a significant difference, x2 (1, N = 119) = 10.51, p = .0012, suggesting that there was a relationship between gender and confidence in map reading skills.

Note: All statistical symbols must be in italics. Also, when reporting decimals with absolute values less than 1, the “0” to the left of the decimal point should be omitted.
5.5 Avoid the use of discriminatory language
The language of the dissertation should, as far as possible, conform to the norms of modern English and avoid using usages that are considered discriminatory and therefore obsolete in modern Anglo-American society.
5.5.1 Avoid using language that is suspected of being sexist
(1) Use third-person pronouns correctly
When referring to a third person who does not know gender, use the plural, “she” or “he or she” and avoid using “he”. For example, do not use
A reporter must not express his own opinions.
Plurals can be used where “he”, “him”, “his” are used in older English, such as :
Reporters must not express their own opinions. 或者
A reporter must present facts, not opinions.
Or use an article such as:
A reporter must not express an opinion.

Or use “he or she”, as in:
A reporter must not express his or her own opinions.
(2) Use noun phrases correctly
Noun phrases referring to adults should be correctly constructed without implying discriminatory meanings, as shown in Figure 5.8 for examples.
Figure 5.8: Correct and false noun phrases referring to adults
That’s right:
young men and women
a chairperson
a female researcher
a firefighter
a nurse
people, humanity, humankind
human-computer interaction
workforce, workers
Gladys Yang
parenting, nurturing
a police officer
a postal worker
a poet
a president
Errors (in alphabetical order):
Boys and girls
a chairman
a female researcher
a fireman
a male nurse
man, mankind

man-machine interaction
manpower
Mrs. Yang Xianyi
mothering
a policeman
a postman
a poetess
a woman president

Note :(1) Words such as “a female researcher” and “a woman president” imply that women are generally not qualified for positions such as researchers and presidents A Male Nurse” implies that jobs such as nurses are generally performed only by women. (2) Use the full name of a female professional (e.g., “Gladys Yang”) without alluding to their marital status (e.g., “Mrs. Yang Xianyi”). )。
5.5.2 Avoid using language that is suspected of disability discrimination
Neutral nouns are used when referring to persons with disabilities, and the following words should be avoided:
amputee cripple deaf and mute
the disabled the learning disabled the mentally ill
the physically disabled the retarded retarded adult
When using gender-neutral nouns, disability-related modifiers should be placed after the neuter noun and not before the neuter noun, as shown in Figure 5.9.
Figure 5.9: Correct reference to persons with disabilities
That’s right:
person who has a disability
child with a congenital disability
child with a birth impairment
person with mental illness
people with psychiatric disability Mistake:
disabled person

defective child

mentally ill person
handicapped people
mentally retarded person
5.5.3 Avoid using language that is suspected of being racially discriminatory
Avoid using any language that disparages minorities.

Figure 5.10: Correct reference to minorities

That’s right:
Asian-American
African-American, Black
Asians
Native American, American Indian Mistake:
Chinaman, Jap
nigger, Negro, Afro-American
Eastern
Indian giver

Appendix 1 Cover example:
Classification number Student number
U D C 密 级
(Song Ti Small Four).

Ph.D./Master’s degree essay (Chinese New Wei No. 1).
(Academic Degree/Full-time Academic Degree or Part-time Academic Degree or equivalent). (italics No. 3).

A Study of Use of Language Chunks by the Chinese EFL Learners in Their Conversations
(Times New Roman Small Two).
A Study on Block Features in Chinese English Learners’ Conversation
(Bold Small Two).

(Song Ti No. 4). (italics No. 4).

College: XXXXXX
Profession: XXXXXXXX
Graduate student: XXX
Instructor : Professor XXX
Chairman of the Defence Committee: Professor XXX
Defence Date: Year Month Day

Classification number Student number
U D C 密 级
(Song Ti Small Four).

Ph.D./Master’s degree essay (Chinese New Wei No. 1).
(Professional Degree/Full-time Professional Degree or Part-time Professional Degree or equivalent). (italics No. 3).

A Study of Use of Language Chunks by the Chinese EFL Learners in Their Conversations
(Times New Roman Small Two).
A Study on Block Features in Chinese English Learners’ Conversation
(Bold Small Two).
(Song Ti No. 4). (italics No. 4).
College: XXXXXX
Professional Degree Categories: XXXXXXXX
Professional Degree Areas: XXX
Graduate student: XXX
School Instructors: Professor XXX
Off-campus instructors: XXX units
Chairman of the Defence Committee: Professor XXX
Defence Date: Year Month Day
Appendix 2 English title page

A Report on the Translation of Purity (Excerpt)

A thesis submitted to
Yangzhou University
in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of
Master of Translation and Interpreting

By
XXXXXX (Note: here is the author’s name spelled in full, first name, last name last, such as Hongying Wei).
Supervisor: Prof. XX (Note: here is the tutor’s name spelled in full, first name, last name, such as Xiufan Liu).
Co-supervisor: Prof. XX (Note: here is the tutor’s name spelled in full, first name, last name last).
XXXXXXXXXXXXX (Note: Professional name translation here).
XXX XXXX (Note: here is the English date, month before and year after, e.g. September 2018).

Appendix 3: Fund Grants page

Thesis title (center, Song body plus black, number three).

The research of this thesis was supported by the so-and-so fund (number: □□□□□). (Song Ti, Primary Four).

Appendix 4
Yangzhou University dissertation originality statement and copyright use authorization
Statement of originality of the dissertation
I declare that the dissertation submitted is the result of independent research work under the guidance of the supervisor. This paper does not contain other individual or collective published research results other than those already cited in the text. Both individuals and collectives who contributed to the research in this paper are clearly identified in the text. The legal consequences of this statement shall be borne by me.
Author’s signature:
Date of signature: yy

Dissertation copyright authorization letter
I am fully aware of the University’s regulations on the retention and use of dissertations, that is, the University has the right to retain and send copies and electronic files of dissertations to relevant state departments or institutions, and allow dissertations to be consulted and borrowed. I authorize Yangzhou University to compile all or part of the content of the dissertation into the relevant database for search, and to preserve and compile the dissertation by means of reproduction such as photocopying, microprinting or scanning. At the same time, the China Institute of Science and Technology Information is authorized to include this dissertation in the China Dissertation Full-text Database and provide information services to the public through the Internet.
This dissertation belongs to (please mark “√” in the appropriate box below):
1. Confidentiality □, this authorization applies after decryption in the year.
2. Non-confidential □.
Author’s signature: Tutor’s signature:
Date of Signature:   year 月 日    Date of Signature:   year   月   日
annex5Table of contents example
Contents

Language/English Abstract…………………… Ⅰ
Chinese Summary…………………… Ⅱ
Symbol Description/Heading/Table ………… Ⅲ
Preface………… 1
Chapter 1 ×××…… 2
1.1×××…………………………………………………………………………… 3
1.1.1×××………………………………………………………………………… 4

…… (omitted).
Conclusion…………………… 82
References………… 83
Addendum…… 84
Research results achieved during degree studies …………
Acknowledgements…………

Appendix 6 Summary example

Professional language/English summary format
Abstract
Content: (Times New Roman font, small four).
Key words: Keywords in English abstracts should usually be lowercase, with “;” in the middle numbers separated

Chinese abstract style
Summary
Text: (Small No. 4 Song characters).
Keywords: small four Song font, 3~5 words, with “” in the middle; ” number separated

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