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Posted: December 20th, 2022
1. Why do muscle cells have far more mitochondria than bone cells? Address the variation in cellular organelles between different cell types and why they vary. Discuss at least 3 different cell types, i.e. bone, muscle, or cardiac. 2. Explain the difference between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Provide at least 2 websites for the class that may be helpful in understanding the difference.
Muscle cells have far more mitochondria than bone cells because they require a greater amount of energy to perform their functions. Muscle cells, particularly those in the heart and skeletal muscles, are responsible for movement and contraction. These activities require the continuous breakdown of ATP, the primary energy currency of the cell, which is produced by the mitochondria. In contrast, bone cells do not have the same energy demands as muscle cells and do not require as many mitochondria to support their functions.
There is significant variation in the number and types of cellular organelles present in different cell types due to the specific functions and requirements of each cell type. For example, nerve cells, also known as neurons, have a high number of mitochondria to support the high energy demands of transmitting nerve impulses. In contrast, liver cells have a high number of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which is involved in the synthesis and modification of proteins.
Other examples of cell types with specialized organelles include:
Cardiac muscle cells: These cells have a high number of mitochondria to support their continuous contractile activity, as well as a high number of sarcoplasmic reticulum, which is involved in the storage and release of calcium ions necessary for muscle contraction.
Red blood cells: These cells do not have a nucleus or other organelles, as they are specialized for carrying oxygen to tissues and do not require the machinery for protein synthesis or energy production.
Aerobic metabolism is a type of cellular respiration that requires oxygen and produces ATP through the breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen. This process occurs in the mitochondria and is more efficient at producing ATP compared to anaerobic metabolism.
Anaerobic metabolism is a type of cellular respiration that does not require oxygen and produces ATP through the breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen. This process occurs in the cytosol and is less efficient at producing ATP compared to aerobic metabolism.
Some websites that may be helpful in understanding the difference between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism include:
Khan Academy: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/energy-and-metabolism/aerobic-and-anaerobic-respiration/a/aerobic-and-anaerobic-respiration
Biology Dictionary: https://biologydictionary.net/aerobic-respiration/Why do muscle cells have far more mitochondria than bone cells?
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