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Posted: December 17th, 2022
Assessment of Criminal Justice from a Global Perspective
Write a 1,400- to 2,100-word paper in which you assess criminal justice from a global perspective. In your paper be sure to analyze the following:
Assess the impact of globalization on the U.S. criminal justice system.
Compare and contrast international criminal justice systems (Civil Law, Common law, and Islamic Law and Socialist Law traditions).
Discuss the impact that cyber crime and technology have had on worldwide justice systems.
Differentiate the policing systems on a worldwide scale.
Identify major crimes and criminal issues that have a global impact on justice systems and processes (e.g., Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, Darfur, Congo, etc.).
Include at least four peer reviewed references.
Globalization has impacted how policies within the United States criminal justice system are formulated. Other than leading to an integrated global economy, globalization has also led to applying different strategies in how things are done and how modern criminal justice within the United States operates. Incidences of organized transnational criminal gangs have been on the rise with the emergence of groups lie the Black Mafia and other terrorist organizations emerging in various countries. Various forms of global crimes are on the rise, with technology and globalization playing a massive role in these developments.
The Impacts of Globalization on the United States Criminal Justice System
The past few decades have seen the transformation of the United States justice system through globalization. These developments have taken place due to several international guidelines and standards being imposed by most countries globally. In the United States, various organizations have raised their scrutiny on how different criminal aspects are treated. For instance, Nelken (2016) explains that the Rome ICC Treaty’s implementation has had a significant impact on the U.S. However, initially, the U.S. was opposed to this treaty because of the general feeling that such legislation gives this international court a lot of authority over the United States judicial system. Nonetheless, Nelken (2016) adds that this treaty’s implementation led to more scrutiny over activities taking place within the United States justice system.
Globalization has impacted the U.S. criminal justice system by presenting more complex criminal enterprises that don’t isolate to stricter hierarchy. Instead, these criminal enterprises are working closely to create more powerful and more extensive networks, which implies that the United States criminal justice has had no other option but to adapt (Nelken, 2016). In other words, the U.S. criminal justice system has had to change from being autonomous to being a system of share intelligence and merged resources. For example, the World Trade Center attack and enactment of the U.S. Patriot act led to the establishment of the department of homeland security, where share intelligence and merged resources were encouraged to enhance national security (Nelken, 2016). The department has its agents working with other local law enforcement to combat terrorism and other crimes such as human trafficking and cyber-attacks. To date, very few countries are as integrated as is the case with the United States criminal justice system.
A Comparison and Contrast of Various International Criminal Justice Systems
The standard law system is practiced by the majority of the countries that former British colonies or territories. The typical law system practice requires that the written law is in review, while the change is based on judicial interpretation (Banks & Baker, 2016). In other words, when an individual or party is accused of any violations of the law, then court procedures become adversarial, and lawyers are often in charge of such cases. On the other hand, the civil law system happens to be the most commonly practiced worldwide (Banks & Baker, 2016). It’s a system comprising numerous rules that are mostly codified and applied or interpreted by judges. The judges are given the mandate to interpret statutes appropriately (Banks & Baker, 2016). However, in situations where their interpretation is wrong, their decisions can be subjected to correction by a higher court judge.
The Impact of Cybercrime and Technology on the Worldwide Justice Systems
Cybercrime can be described as a form of crime that utilizes computers to achieve its objectives or manipulate data (Ulsch, 2014). With advances in technology, it has become challenging for the word justice systems to determine the jurisdiction or sources of a given cybercrime type. Ulsch (2014) explains that the fact that cybercrimes don’t have any physical borders makes it difficult for criminal justice systems across the globe to handle these types of crime.
Today criminals are leveraging on the internet to commit serious crimes because the technology provides them anonymity, making it harder for law enforcement to track criminals (Ulsch, 2014). Consequently, the only option left with most criminal justice systems worldwide is leveraging their expertise and resources to tackle these crimes, although it is not always successful. Additionally, reporting cybercrimes is another significant obstacle faced by worldwide justice systems (Ulsch, 2014). The fact that gathering evidence against cybercrimes is complicated means that it is often tough to identify criminals sitting behind a screen.
Any cybercrime investigations require highly skilled personnel and well versed with the latest computer forensics science and develop a good understanding of how such crimes should be prosecuted. However, Ulsch (2014) indicates that new technology promises to help worldwide criminal justice systems with positive impacts through digital surveillance cameras and other related information-related techniques. As such, based on this understanding, technology is having both positive and negative effects on the worldwide justice systems
Policing System on a Worldwide Scale
On a worldwide scale, the policing system differentiates in terms of size, government tiers, and the need for adopting government support. Today the United States is the leading nation in the world with the most extensive policing system, given that the U.S. has more than 20,000 law enforcement agencies spread out countrywide, at both the local and state levels (Guzman & Das, 2013). Compared to other English-speaking nations, the U.S. has different because it has many areas with multiple agencies that overlap each other, either at the federal, state, or local agencies. Like Australia, which only has eight agencies, have the least law enforcement agencies among English speaking countries (Guzman & Das, 2013).
In most policing systems worldwide, Guzman and Das (2013) argue that local agencies are interested in receiving calls from citizens, conducting neighborhood patrols. Still, in situations where a severe offense or crime has occurred, they often request support from federal level agencies. The state agencies are mostly found patrolling on highways and issuing warrants. In the United States, the FBI permits other agencies to use the National Crime Information Center database to assist both state and local agencies in their investigation processes (Guzman, & Das, 2013).
Today Interpol stands out as the largest law enforcement organization comprising of allied nations. The organization has an extensive database of information obtained from almost every country globally (Guzman & Das, 2013). Although Interpol is not a law enforcement agency by itself, Guzman and Das (2013) explain that it acts as the primary communication for the various law enforcement agencies globally. The organization’s work ensures that police worldwide have the right access to the necessary tools or services required to conduct their job more effectively. As such, Interpol is an organization that aims to provide allied policing systems across the globe with targeted training, support on expert investigations, secure communication channels, and relevant data.
Major Criminal Issues and Crimes with Global Impact on Justice Systems and Processes
Although cyber-crime has become a significant issue affecting modern justice processes and systems worldwide, counties also have to handle other serious crimes such as terrorism, illegal gambling, human and drug trafficking, among others. One incident was the terrible Rwandan genocide of 1994, where local media played a massive role in supporting and creating the right atmosphere that facilitated the sanctioning of the ensuing human suffering (Nelken, 2016). For three months between April and June of 1994, Nelken (2016) indicates at least 800,000 Tutsis died in the Hutus’ hands. Although the rivalry between the two communities existed, this rivalry turned into animosity after the death of President Juvenal Habyarimana, a Hutu native (Nelken, 2016). This incident had a global impact on justice systems and processes because international criminal justice bodies such as the International Criminal Court (ICC) were involved, with Interpol being used to track down on suspected masterminds of this genocide across the globe.
Another significant crime issue with a global impact has been Somali piracy because it has affected goods’ transportation to different countries across the Indian Ocean. Since the collapse of the Said Barre regime in Somalia in 1991, a piracy wave off the Somali coast began (Nelken, 2016). With the lack of a properly functioning government in place, Nelken (2016) explains that international companies took advantage of this situation to conduct unlicensed foreign fishing, with local fishermen turning into local militias to attack these vessels. Consequently, it became severe criminal issues and crimes with global impact due to piracy.
From the preceding, Criminal justice communities around the world are always evolving. With numerous technological changes taking place, it has caused a massive shockwave that reaches out to the international level. Globalization has impacted the U.S. criminal justice system by presenting more complex criminal enterprises that don’t isolate to stricter hierarchy. Today criminals are leveraging on the internet to commit serious crimes because the technology provides them anonymity, making it harder for law enforcement worldwide to track them. A global organization such as Interpol has to work tirelessly to ensure that police systems worldwide have the right access to the necessary tools or services required to conduct their work more effectively.
Banks, C., & Baker, J. (2016). Systems of law: Common law, civil law, socialist law, Islamic law, Indigenous law. Comparative, International, and Global Justice: Perspectives from Criminology and Criminal Justice, 31-56. doi:10.4135/9781071801277.n3
Guzman, M. C., Das, A. M., & Das, D. K. (2013). The evolution of policing: Worldwide innovations and insights. CRC Press.
Nelken, D. (2016). Comparative criminal justice and globalization. doi:10.4324/9781315573069
Ulsch, M. (2014). The rise of cyber organized crime and its global impact. Cyber Threat!, 17-34. doi:10.1002/9781118915028.ch01
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