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Posted: December 7th, 2022

Jean watson’s philosophy of nursing

Jean watson’s philosophy of nursing
• Theorist – jean watson was born in west virginia, us
• Education: bsn from the University of Colorado in 1964, ms from the University of Colorado in 1966, and phd from the University of Colorado in 1973.
• Distinguished professor of nursing and chair in caring science at the university of colorado health sciences center. \s• Fellow of the american academy of nursing. \s• Dean of nursing at the university health sciences center and president of the national league for nursing
• Undergraduate and graduate degrees in nursing and psychiatric-mental health nursing, as well as a doctorate in educational psychology and counseling.
• Research has been in the area of human caring and loss.

Her theory was published in “nursing: human science and human care” in 1988.
The seven premises
1. Caring can be effectively demonstrated and practiced only interpersonally.
2. Caring is made up of carative factors that result in the fulfillment of specific human needs.
3. Effective caring promotes health and personal or family development.
4. Caring responses accept the person not only as he or she is now, but also as they may become.
5. A caring environment fosters the development of potential while allowing the individual to choose the best action for himself or herself at any given time.
Sixth, caring is more “healthogenic” than curing. A science of caring is complementary to the science of curing.
7. Caring is central to nursing practice.
The ten primary carative factors
1. The formation of a humanistic- altruistic system of values.
2. The establishment of faith-hope.
3. The development of sensitivity to oneself and others.
4. The formation of a helping-trust relationship
5. The encouragement and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative emotions.
6. The systematic application of scientific problem-solving methods to decision making.
7. Encouragement of interpersonal teaching-learning.
8. The provision of a mental, physical, sociocultural, and spiritual environment that is supportive, protective, and/or corrective.
9. Assistance with the gratification of human needs.
10. The recognition of existential-phenomenological forces.
The first three carative factors serve as the science of caring’s “philosophical foundation.” The first three carative factors lay the groundwork for the remaining seven.
1. The establishment of a humanistic-altruistic value system
• Starts developmentally early, with values shared with parents.
• Mediated by one’s own life experiences, learning, and exposure to the humanities.
• Is regarded as necessary for the nurse’s own maturation, promoting altruistic behavior toward others.
2. Faith-hope • Is necessary for both the carative and curative processes.
• When modern science has exhausted its options, the nurse can continue to rely on faith and hope to provide a sense of well-being through beliefs that are meaningful to the individual.
3. Cultivation of sensitivity to oneself and others • Examines the nurse’s need to begin to feel an emotion as it manifests itself.
• It is necessary to develop one’s own feelings in order to interact with others in a genuine and sensitive manner.
• Striving to become sensitive makes the nurse more authentic, which promotes self-growth and self-actualization in both the nurse and those with whom the nurse interacts. • Nurses only promote health and higher level functioning when they form person-to-person relationships.
• The mode of communication that establishes rapport and caring is the most powerful tool for establishing a helping-trust relationship.
• Characteristics required in the helping-trust relationship are: • Congruence • Empathy • Warmth • Communication includes verbal, nonverbal, and listening with empathetic understanding.
5. The expression of both positive and negative emotions
• “Feelings influence thoughts and behavior, and they must be considered and accommodated in a caring relationship.”
• Being aware of one’s feelings aids in understanding one’s behavior.
6. The systematic application of scientific problem-solving methods to decision-making.
• Only the scientific problem-solving method allows for control and prediction, as well as self-correction.
• Caring science should not always be neutral and objective.
7. Encouragement of interpersonal teaching-learning
• The caring nurse must be equally concerned with the learning and teaching processes.
• Understanding the individual’s perception of the situation aids the nurse in developing a cognitive plan.
8. Provision for a supportive, protective, and/or corrective mental, physical, socio-cultural, and spiritual environment
• The external and internal environments are interdependent; as part of this caring factor, the nurse must provide comfort, privacy, and safety.
9. Assisting in the satisfaction of human needs
• It is based on a hierarchy of needs similar to Maslow’s.
• Each need is equally important for providing quality nursing care and promoting optimal health; all needs deserve to be addressed and valued.
Watson’s ordering of requirements
• Lower order needs (biophysical needs) • Food and fluid requirements
• The requirement for elimination • The requirement for ventilation
• Lower order needs (psychophysical needs) • Need for activity-inactivity • Need for sexuality • Higher order needs (psychosocial needs) • Need for achievement • Need for affiliation • Higher order need (intrapersonal-interpersonal need)
10. Consideration of existential-phenomenological forces
• Phenomenology is a method of understanding people based on how things appear to them in their frame of reference.
The study of human existence through phenomenological analysis is known as existential psychology.
• This factor assists the nurse in reconciling and mediating the inconsistency of viewing the person holistically while attending to the hierarchical ordering of needs.
As a result, the nurse helps the person find the strength or courage to face life or death.
Watson’s theory and the four main ideas
1. The human being
• A valued person in and of himself or herself to be cared for, respected, nurtured, understood, and assisted; in general, a philosophical view of a person as a fully functional integrated self. He, the human, is regarded as greater than and distinct from the sum of his or her parts.”
2. Health • Watson adds the following three components to who defines health:
• A high level of overall physical, mental, and social functioning • A general level of daily adaptive-maintenance functioning
• The lack of illness (or the presence of efforts that leads its absence)
• According to Watson, caring (and nursing) have always existed in every society.
• A caring attitude is not passed down from generation to generation; rather, it is passed down through the culture of the profession as a unique way of coping with its environment.
• Nursing is concerned with the promotion of health, the prevention of illness, the care of the sick, and the restoration of health.”
• It focuses on disease prevention and treatment. She believes that holistic health care is essential to nursing practice.

Nursing is defined as “a human science of persons and human health-illness experiences mediated by professional, personal, scientific, esthetic, and ethical human transactions.”
Watson’s theory of nursing and the nursing process
• The nursing process follows the same steps as scientific research. They are both attempting to solve a problem. Both provide a framework for making decisions.
1. Assessment • Observation, identification, and review of the problem; application of relevant knowledge from the literature
• Also includes conceptual knowledge for framework formulation and conceptualization.
• This includes developing hypotheses and defining variables that will be investigated in order to solve the problem.
• It aids in determining how variables will be examined or measured; it includes a conceptual approach or design for problem solving. It determines what data will be collected and how it will be collected on whom.
3. Intervention • It is the direct action and implementation of the plan, and it includes data collection.
4. Evaluation • Data analysis as well as the examination of the effects of data-driven interventions.
• Contains the interpretation of the results, the extent to which a positive outcome occurred, and whether the result is generalizable.

It may also generate new hypotheses or even lead to the development of a nursing theory.
Watson’s theory and theory characteristics
1. It is logical.
2. Relatively straightforward 3. Generelizable
4. Based on phenomenological studies in which questions are asked rather than hypotheses are stated.
5. It has the potential to guide and improve practice.
6. Underpinned by the theoretical contributions of numerous humanists, philosophers, developmentalists, and psychologists.
• This theory situates the client within the context of the family, community, and culture.
• It focuses the practice on the client rather than the technology.
• Individual biophysical needs are given less weight.
• The ten causal factors primarily define the person’s psychosocial needs.
• More research is needed before it can be used in practice.
Watson’s theory-related research
The impact of Watson’s caring model on the quality of life and blood pressure of hypertensive patients. Journal of Adv Nursing. 2003 Jan;41(2):130-9.

This study found a link between care delivered using Watson’s caring model and improved quality of life in hypertensive patients. Furthermore, there was a link between the caring model and a decrease in the patient’s blood pressure in those patients for whom it was used. The Watson caring model is recommended as a guide for nurses caring for hypertensive patients as one method of lowering blood pressure and improving quality of life.
l. S. Martin (1991). Using Watson’s theory to investigate the facets of adult polycystic kidney disease. Anna journal, 18, pp. 403-406
J. A. B. Mullaney (2000). The lived experience of treating depressed women using Watson’s actual caring occasions. 129-142 in Journal of Holistic Nursing, 18(2).
l. S. Martin (1991). Using Watson’s theory to investigate the facets of adult polycystic kidney disease. Annals of Internal Medicine, 18, 403-406
• Watson provides many useful concepts for nursing practice.
• She connects many theories that are commonly used in nursing education.
• The detailed descriptions of the causative factors can help those who want to use them in practice or research.

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