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Posted: November 24th, 2022

The four principles for medical ethic

The four principles for medical ethic
DQ3

The four medical ethics principles are and are defined as follows:
Respect for autonomy is the respect for a person’s decisions made in accordance with objective morality.
Beneficence is the idea that a healthcare professional should prevent harm, provide appropriate benefits to patients, and weigh the risks versus benefits and cost.
Nonmaleficence- adheres to the Hippocratic Oath of “do no harm.”
Justice- refers to providing care for all that is equitable in terms of cost, risks, and benefits.
These are the principles in my opinion:
Autonomy, Nonmaleficence, Beneficence, and Justice
In the context of the Christian biblical narrative, I believe the principles would be: Justice, Beneficence, Respect for autonomy, and Maleficence.
But I have a lot of doubts about this, which is why I’m posting this so close to the deadline. This topic has been discussed with my spouse, coworkers, and doctors at work. Thank you for the thought-provoking question, which has sparked both thoughtful debate and robust discussion with others.
J. Hoehner (2020). Practicing Dignity: An Introduction to Christian Values and Health Care Decision Making. The Christian Narrative and Biomedical Ethics Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-health-care-decision-making/v1.1/#/chapter/3 JENIFFER
Beauchamp and Childress (2008) outline the four common principles of health care ethics, which are:
1. The principle of respect for autonomy, which states that a patient is alert and oriented, with full capacity to make his or her own decisions. This applies to everyone, including those suffering from serious illness, including mental illness. The patient must demonstrate comprehension. An example of this autonomous liberty that is frequently used is one that a Christian Scientist may exercise. Blood transfusions, they believe, are not acceptable in the eyes of their God. This is considered a sinful action. In this case, regardless of his personal feelings, the Doctor. This is the fundamental principle of providing “informed consent” in the patient-provider relationship and health-care procedures (McCormick, n.d.).
2. The principle of nonmaleficence, which affirms the need for medical competence and the prohibition of causing harm to the patient by omission or commission. For example, a patient whose life will be prolonged and painful and debilitating condition is worse than death, causing more harm. In situations such as end-of-life care, we are morally obligated to always choose the more humane and less harmful treatment (McCormick, n.d.).
3. The principle of beneficence, which states that the health care provider has a moral obligation, or duty, to provide benefit to the patient as well as to take positive steps to prevent and protect the patient from harm (McCormick, n.d.)
4. The principle of justice This provision generally means that individuals who are equals should be treated equally. According to the justice criteria, each person is entitled to an equal share based on need, effort, contribution, merit, and free-market exchange (Beauchamp & Childress, 1994, p. 330 as cited in McCormick, n.d.)
When considering how these might be ordered in the context of the Christian narrative, I believe justice would come first, followed by non-maleficence, beneficence, and autonomy.
As we discussed in previous weeks, my reasoning is that 1. God created all of humanity as unique, individual, and of equal importance or respect. As humans created in God’s image, we use moral reasoning with the intention of showing respect to others (Bougue & Hogan, 2020). With this in mind, the practitioner has a moral obligation to do no harm by treating each person with the utmost respect. This is consistent with justice. 2. There shall be no harm done due to non-malfience in respecting others. 3. Beneficence refers to practitioners’ obligations in providing care, and finally, autonomy. Autonomy is largely self-regulated; therefore, if the practitioner applies justice, non-maleficence, and beneficence, autonomy should be revered. If the other principles are followed, this should happen naturally.

References:

D.W. Bogue and M. Hogan (2020). 1. Foundational Issues in Christian Spirituality and Ethics Practicing Dignity, An Introduction to Christian Values, and Health Care Decision Making https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-decision-making-in-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/1

Respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice are the four principles of biomedical ethics (Hoehner, 2020). Nonmaleficence is the most important to me, followed by beneficence, justice, and autonomy. Similarly, I believe the four principles in the Christian biblical narrative would be ranked the same.
One of the Ten Commandments, Exodus 20:13, is a clear message of nonmaleficence: “You shall not commit murder.” This message of not causing harm to others is repeated throughout the scripture, and I believe it is the most important. Non-maleficence would be followed by beneficence, as the scripture says in Proverbs 22:9, “He who is generous will be blessed.” Because he donates some of his food to the poor.” Justice, I believe, can be found throughout the Bible. According to Matthew 22, “love your neighbor as you love yourself.”

P. Hoehner (2020). The Christian Narrative and Biomedical Ethics Practicing Dignity: An Introduction to Christian Values and Health Care Decision Making.

DQ 2

The four parts of the Christian biblical narrative, including creation, fall, redemption, and restoration, offer a variety of perspectives on God’s relationship with the reality of sickness and disease. Creation identifies God as the Creator of everything; nothing exists apart from him, and everything created serves a purpose and has equal moral worth. The term “fall” refers to a deviation from God’s plan that has a negative impact on the mind, body, or spirit. By eating the forbidden fruit, Adam and Eve defied God’s plan, causing the schism for sin. Death (spiritual, relational, and physical), suffering, disease, conflict, injustice, pain, toil, and separation between God and humanity are the consequences of sin (Rich, 2019). In medicine, illness is defined as a disruption in the homeostasis of the body’s physiology; the fall and subsequent separation from God disrupted the homeostasis of creation itself, resulting in disease, sickness, suffering, and death (Hoehner, 2020). God sent his son Jesus to die for the sins of others, redeem the world, and restore Shalom to creation. All of God’s people who believe will be resurrected to eternal life, and believers are fully forgiven, redeemed, have eternal life, and await final perfection. Believers look forward to the resurrection of their bodies as well as a glorious eternity of embodied life and fellowship with God (Hoehner, 2020).

According to this story, if one believes, one can find comfort and hope in the face of illness with God and be brought to eternal life. Sin, pain, disease, and death are all removed during restoration. With threats removed, there are no more external (the sea) or internal (sin) threats, and there is unrestricted freedom to flourish as God intended from the beginning (Rich, 2019).
References:

P.J. Hoehner (2020). The Christian Narrative and Biomedical Ethics 1st Ed., https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-decision-making-in-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/3

The Christian biblical narrative is divided into four parts, the first of which is a creation based on the belief that God created everything. The aspect of creation confirms that all things are valuable and purposefully created. Furthermore, it implies that everything has a global purpose and does not exist by chance (Grand Canyon University, 2019). The Fall deviates from God’s original design for creation. It is clear from the biblical story of Adam and Eve eating the forbidden fruit, which was a sin against God. The fall caused a schism between man and his creator. However, the Lord’s goodness granted humans redemption and restoration for their sins. The holiness of Christ restored God’s relationship with people after it had been destroyed.
These four components have a significant impact on the Christian perception of sickness and disease. The fall contributes to a better understanding of the world’s illnesses. It is because it symbolized man’s separation from God and the existence of sin (Van De Wiele, 2020). What happens to Christian believers, both good and bad, is viewed as an act of God’s will and purpose. Although Jesus Christ redeemed people from spiritual death, the fall caused suffering to become a part of the world. People’s restoration and redemption provide strength in times of illness. According to the Christian Bible narrative, Christ’s second coming will aid in the restoration of God’s kingdom (Grand Canyon University, 2019). People who believe in the afterlife and hope for spiritual eternity find comfort during illnesses and diseases. In the face of illness, one can find hope and comfort in God’s word and faithful promises. The Lord heals the brokenhearted and binds their wounds, according to Psalms 147:3.
References

University of the Grand Canyon (2019). PHI-413V Overview of Topic 3. https://lms-ugrad.gcu.edu.
147:3 Psalm
T. Van De Wiele (2020). Illness Theologies, Now and Then: Reading Psalm 6 in the Light of Personalistic Medicine Systems 42(2), pp. 143-158. DOI: 10.1186/18712207-12341410

The biblical story begins with the realization that God created the world, as stated in Genesis chapter one and repeated in Colossians 1:16 and Revelation 4:11. (Hoehner, 2020). The sins of Adam and Eve caused separation from God, which resulted in disease, sickness, suffering, and physical death, as well as spiritual rebellion (Hoehner, 2020). Nonetheless, “For God so loved the world that He gave His only Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have everlasting life” (John 3:16). His eternal love for us did not end with the fall, but those who seek it can find it. According to 2 Corinthians 5:17, “If any man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old things have passed away; behold, all things have become new.” This verse brings comfort in knowing that God is greater than any sin, sickness, or suffrage. His assurance of restoration gives me hope. My parents instilled in me the importance of prayer. My father taught me that God always answers prayers, but that the answer is not always yes. However, that lesson can be interpreted negatively because His promise is not always seen on Earth, but is promised in heaven. “Medical science is a wonderful thing, but it is limited and imperfect” (Hoehner, 2020). Death is unavoidable, and suffering is a fact of life, but those who believe in a larger story find solace.
Reference
P. Hoehner (2020). The Christian Narrative and Biomedical Ethics Practicing Dignity: An Introduction to Christian Values and Health Care Decision Making. https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-decision-making-in-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/3

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