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Posted: November 24th, 2022
Instruction for the Responds Posts-Due by Saturday, 22 January
In your response posts, you need to reply FOUR different peers.
When directly responding to peers’ posts, you must answer the following questions
1. Do you believe that your peer has correctly categorized Amanda’s response to the reverse bear trap? Explain why or why not using examples from the course materials and the video.
2. Analyze how your peer indicated s/he would handle the reverse bear trap if s/he was in Amanda’s position. Which school of ethics do you think it falls under? Provide examples from the course materials and his/her response that supports your position
3. Analyze how your peer indicated s/he would handle the reverse bear trap if s/he was in the other victim’s position. Which school of ethics do you think it falls under? Provide examples from the course materials and his/her response that supports your position
4. Does his/her response to the Categorical Imperative question align with his/her responses to the previous questions? Explain why or why not.
Discussion 1- J.R
I believe that it could have been utilitarianism that drove Amanda as she would not have known she was hurting anyone. Jigsaw told her that her cellmate was already dead, which had been a lie, and she had operated under that given information. In her mind, there would only be a benefit to herself and no loss to anyone by cutting out the key, and thus meeting the “majority over minority” morality that utilitarianism is known for. It is most likely not Virtue Ethics as it asks that we not be bad people, and desecrating a corpse is generally frowned upon. It is also impossible to have been Formalism either, as body desecration is likely universally looked down on as immoral.
If I were in Amanda’s place, I think that I would panic and rush into it without thinking about it from a moral standpoint at all. Self-preservation would probably be the only thing on my mind at the time. I would just be rushing to beat the timer once I heard it ticking behind my head, especially after seeing the demonstration of a reverse bear trap completely destroying the mannequin head.
If I were in the victim’s place, I would probably have just accepted it. As unfortunate as it would be to not live through the game, I’m not even sure how long I would have to think about it considering she would’ve been cutting by the time I woke up. At the very least I’d want her to feel bad about it later.
Categorical Imperative is unlikely to be applicable, given that Jigsaw’s game takes place effectively disconnected from a functioning society. Jigsaw’s rules matter more than societal norms and morals in his games. Formalism works the way it does because it assumes that immoral actions set bad precedents towards universalizing an act, but in one of Jigsaw’s games there is a pretty quick understanding that whatever happens inside the game would not carry back over into the rest of society morally. In contrast, the Hypothetical Imperatives would absolutely apply as they are driven completely by desire and not morality, especially with every victim’s desire being to live.
Discussion 2- L.B
Of the three schools of thought, I believe the Utilitarianism theory best describes the theory used to make Amanda’s decision. I made this choice because her actions focused on the ultimate consequence; her survival. Although Utilitarianism is “other-regarding,” meaning that others must be considered, Amanda initially believed the other person to be dead, leaving her the only alive person in the room. Upon discovering he was still alive, she had no knowledge of why he was initially unconscious and had no reason to believe that they would both end up dead. By saving herself, she could ensure at least one person had a chance to survive.
If I were in Amanda’s position, I would have taken the same steps to save my own life. The situation leaves no room for moral debate due to the timer, but there would be internal conflict. Killing another person goes against my instincts, but even a split-second decision like a thought would require some thought because you have to acknowledge your instinct to help others versus save your own life.
As the other victim on the floor, I would want Amanda to slit my throat and keep me unaware of what was going on! If it is inevitable that I am going to die, for whatever reason, I would want this to end as painlessly as possible. To be disemboweled and awake is cruel, even in this circumstance. Also, I do not want to watch Amanda’s head get ripped off and then lay there waiting to die or take creative liberty and wonder what torture I face. This is just a movie, but even in real life, I think it is better to go in my sleep!
The categorical imperatives do not apply in this situation. One has the option of standing by and watching another be killed or risk allowing yourself to be killed. The timing factor pushes the decision-making act, with little time for thought about all of the implications of the decision. If one were to begin the debate of which categorical imperative applies: do not kill, protect the weak, do not kill yourself, and so on, the philosophical debate would begin internally, and the clock would run out, effectively eliminating all chances of survival for all parties involved.
Discussion 3- S.G
During the required video clip of the movie Saw of the reversed bear trap, Amanda (the original victim) seems to be in a great panic and fear while being given a choice to continue being able to live. During the scene, it appears she has a decision to make that would require saving her own life or spearing another not knowing the odds. With a limited time frame, she is forced to act quickly. We see that she ends up killing an unnamed individual and saves herself.
The school I believe Amanda’s response corresponded with was the Consequentalism. Consequentalism focuses on the actions that are ‘right’ as long as they have benefical consequences (Williams & Arrigo, 2012).By Amanda doing something morally wrong (her killing the unnamed victim) lead into something “good” (saving her life). At her point in her own place, she was thinking about her survival, not anyone else.
I would like to say I would handle the bear trap in a different way than Amanda. However, when faced with possible death, survival instincts and adrenaline playing into fear, it is really easy to throw morals out the window and do what is best for my own survival. For this instance, I would like to say that I would help the unnamed victim survive instead of myself, not only because it’s what would be benefiting others and the “proper” thing, but because that’s part of my character. The scene describes the reverse bear claw as fast and painless death, it is the anticipation of it that really kills you.
If I was the victim, I would want Amanda (or whoever is in her place) to save me. I see this as very controversial with my previous answers. I would not blame the victim, if she chooses to save herself. At the end of the day, its each person for their own and that’s the way many people live their life. Especially in a life-threatening situation, it would be quite obvious that people are willing to save themselves over others.
Categorical Imperative is the rule of coduct that is unconditional or absolute towards all people involved. What is the morally right thing to do in this situation? It would be close to how when someone starts as a victim of a crime, then uses self-defense to save their own life. If one commits the crime, should they be ready for punishment? I believe there are many grey areas in these particular circumstances, where categorical imperative should not be applied. At the end of the day, a life was saved, even though another was taken to accomplish that action. While technically, Amanda committed a murder, it was for survival and to stop her life from facing more danger.
Discussion 4- R.V
On the Cult Horror Movie Scene No 78 – Saw (2004), Amanda has to make an ethical decision either to die by means of a reverse bear trap strapped to her jaw or kill his soul mate who has the key to her trap inside his stomach. Amanda decision to rip his partner’s stomach apart and extract the key killing him, is based on the Utilitarianism school of ethics. According to Albanese (2016), Mill’s utilitarianism are actions that helps a person feel good about their decision. Utilitarianism is based on consequences or results that causes the good feelings of the action. In essence the decision chosen will that which produces the best results.
Amanda was faced with a decision to kill or be killed and her decision was based on the overall result. Her life. I believe that it was easy to make that decision because she thought the person was already dead. It wasn’t until she was determined to get that key that she saw he was still alive but by then she was committed to getting that key. The consequence of her decision benefited her with her life and in the clip you can see how Amanda is congratulated for still being alive. In this situation the outcome of saving herself was what mattered to Amanda. Ultimately her ethical decision lies on the utilitarianism or consequentialism ethical school.
It’s hard to say how I would handle this situation if I was in Amanda’s shoes. Being in that situation under pressure with the time running out, I would say I would’ve just let the clock expire. I would’ve not killed another human being to save myself simply because I would live with guilt for the rest of my life and also if I would live I would probably end up in prison for that murder and that is no way of living. Also what if I could’ve not found the key on time. I would’ve killed that person and myself for nothing. By letting the clock expire on me I would’ve been content knowing that at least one of us lived. I believe that it is wrong to kill even if it is to save your life unless u are defending yourself.
It’s hard to say what reason Amanda had to make that decision but she must live with her decision for the rest of her life but obviously for the person laying paralyzed he would’ve hoped Amanda would’ve chosen differently. It’s hard to say how strong their relationship was but if I was paralyzed and it was a family member of mine that needed to kill me to save themselves then I would have been ok with that but if it was a random person that had to kill me to save their own life then I would not be ok.
The Categorical Imperative should not apply in this situation. Albanese (2016) states that individuals should follow their moral duty regardless of the outcomes. According to Albanese (2016) Categorical Imperative “decisions should be made based on duty” (Pg. 28). In the situation Amanda was her decision was based on the benefit of the consequence which was to save her life. If Amanda would’ve acted based on her moral duty she would’ve not killed the individual for that key. Her moral duty is not to kill another being to save herself.
Week 2: Post a response to a classmate 1’s post.
As you navigate down the page, posts are automatically marked as read.
Make any adjustments to the automatic marking as read setting.
What is the most serious complaint?
The patient’s chief complaint is that he is experiencing growing and constant shortness of breath, which is accompanied by a nonproductive nocturnal cough.
What are your top three differential diagnoses, starting with the presumed final diagnosis, based on the subjective and objective facts you’ve been provided with?
Based on the medical history presented, which includes chronic shortness of breath that was initially caused by activity and now manifests itself as a nonproductive nocturnal cough, the diagnosis is suspected to be asthma. There is a history of seasonal allergies in childhood, as well as a family history of allergies and eczema. Her medical physical exam was normal and within normal ranges, with the exception of expiratory wheezing (high-pitched whistling on expiration in all lobes). This student believes that the diagnosis of asthma is at the top of her list of possible diagnoses. In accordance with Ullmann et al. (2018), a prolonged cough (particularly if it is non-productive) alone in an otherwise healthy child is highly indicative of asthmatic symptoms. A family history of asthma, allergies, or eczema, according to Weiss (2020), raises the possibility of developing asthma in the first place. A dry, unproductive cough that worsens at night can be a symptom of allergies or asthma, according to the specialist. Symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) frequently occur with severe asthma in children. In order to explain how GER can provoke asthma, the following mechanisms have been proposed: micro-aspiration, acid stimulation of the esophagus, and stimulation of the vagus nerve.
The top three diagnoses are mentioned below, with asthma ranking first on the list of most common conditions.
1. Asthma – J45. 909; 2. GERD – K21. 9; 3. Seasonal allergies – J30. 2; 4. GERD – K21. 9; 5.
What kind of treatment strategy would you explore if you were to follow current evidence-based practice recommendations?
Every asthma patient should be provided with a personalized treatment plan that is tailored to their specific needs. The other most important aspect of caring for asthma patients is education. With this in mind, when it comes to asthma symptom management, it is wise for us to educate the patient on medication compliance and the proper technique to administer medication (for example, using an inhaler with a spacer). In order to keep asthma exacerbations under control, it is critical to remember these two principles. The ultimate goal for everyone, however, should be to keep asthma attacks to a bare minimum. Patients with asthma should be informed on the importance of immunization, especially now that COVID is in full swing. They should be taught on the benefits of flu, pneumonia, and COVID vaccinations, among other things. When it comes to individuals with asthma, respiratory infections such as influenza are more hazardous due to the fact that they frequently result in pneumonia and acute respiratory disease. Based on the history and physical examination, our patient has mild to moderate asthma, and according to the Global Initiative for Asthma Management and Prevention (2021), in order to reduce the risk of serious exacerbations, it is highly recommended that the patient begin using a low dose inhaled corticosteroid on a daily basis to reduce the risk of serious exacerbations. This decision was made on the basis of evidence showing treatment with a short acting bronchodilator (SABA) alone increases the risk of severe exacerbations, and that treatment with any inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) reduces that risk significantly. If the patient does not show any progress or continues to have many exacerbation episodes, we as healthcare professionals must first determine whether or not they are adhering to the treatment plan. Following this technique, it is safe to add a SABA, followed by a long-acting bronchodilator, to get the desired results ( LABA). As a result, the asthma action plan would be as follows:
Using the Symbicort inhaler 160/4.5 mcg, inhale twice daily for two minutes.
(LABA+ICS) = (LABA+ICS)
Singular 10 mg taken orally once a day
For shortness of breath, take 2 to 4 puffs of albuterol daily every 2 hours on an as-needed basis ( patient must be education never to run of out this medication- this is their SABA )
Discussing Week 2 Discussion with a Classmate 2
Discussion for Week 2
Beginning on January 20, 2022, South University NSG6440-Practicum IV: Family Health will be offered.
What is the most serious complaint?
The patient in question reports that she is experiencing shortness of breath and a persistent coughing fit. Initially, she only experienced the symptoms described above when she was exercising, but they are now consistent. Dyspnea is the most often reported symptom.
Based on the information that has been provided (both subjective and objective), What are your three most important differential diagnoses, starting with the presumptive final diagnosis?
Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and pneumonia are the top three most common differential diagnoses, with asthma being the first to be listed after the probable final diagnosis. Asthma manifests itself as shortness of breath and a coughing fit. It is also influenced by allergies in her family history, as well as a high-pitched whistling sound on expiration in all lobes of her breast, among other factors (Pasquale et al., 2019). In the context of complete well-being and rest at night, as well as during physical activity, shortness of breath or even asphyxia may occur. When an asthmatic attack develops, a non-productive nocturnal cough is common. It occurs in conjunction with dyspnea and is characterized by a supersaturation of the airways. COPD is associated with a progressive restriction of airflow in the airways that develops over a sustained period of time. The etiology of COPD is inflammation of the lung tissue in reaction to irritation with pathogenic gases and particles, which occurs as a result of exposure to these pathogens (Pasquale et al., 2019). COPD, on the other hand, is more common in elderly persons who smoke cigarettes. For its part, pneumonia is an acute inflammatory lung infection marked by fever, weakness, chest discomfort, shortness of breath, coughing up phlegm, and other clinical manifestations such as fatigue. In this case, pneumonia appears to be an improper diagnosis due to the patient’s non-productive nocturnal cough and the patient’s denial of chest pain and acute illnesses.
With current evidence-based practice recommendations in mind, what treatment strategy would you consider implementing?
The following components should be included in the treatment plan:
Asthma treatment using medications, which involves both a fundamental therapy targeted at anti-inflammatory treatment as well as asymptomatic therapy aiming at eliminating asthma-related symptoms. The treatment described above would have an impact on the progression of the condition and allow it to be controlled. Baseline therapy preparations include glucocorticoids (including inhalators), monoclonal antibodies, leukotrienes, and receptor antagonists, to name a few examples (Pasquale et al., 2019).
It is vital that the patient’s life be free of the variables that contribute to the development of the disease (allergens, for example) (Martinez-Garcia et al., 2020).
Diet. It is recommended that certain meals and beverages be removed from the patient’s ration in order to improve her overall health. Proper diet is considered to be one of the most important factors in the fight against asthma. Because this condition is of an immune-allergic nature, the diet must be adjusted to be hypoallergenic in order to prevent it from occurring (Martinez-Garcia et al., 2020).
Patient education is important. Rather of being treated with exacerbations and subsequent remissions, asthma patients can achieve a stable and long-term remission by paying close attention to their symptoms and managing their asthma properly. For example, the patient should be provided with thorough instructions on how to use inhalers. The prognosis is heavily influenced by how diligently the patient takes care of herself and adheres to her doctor’s orders, among other factors (Martinez-Garcia et al., 2020). Patient education emphasizes the importance of minimizing exposure with allergens and seeking medical attention as soon as possible.
Martinez-Garcia, M. A., Faner, R., Oscullo, G., de la Rosa, D., Soler-Catalua, J. J., Ballester, M., and Agusti, A. Martinez-Garcia, M. A., Faner, R., Oscullo, G., de la Rosa, D., Soler-Catalua, J. J., Ballester, M., and A (2020). In chronic obstructive pulmonary illness, inhaled steroids, circulating eosinophils, chronic airway infection, and pneumonia risk are all investigated. an investigation into networks 1078-1085 in the American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, volume 201, no 9.
C. B. Pasquale, J. Vietri, R. Choate, A. McDaniel, R. Sato, K. D. Ford, and B. P. Yawn published a paper titled (2019). The implications of community-acquired pneumonia in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as recounted by the patients themselves. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation, 6(2), 132. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation, 6(2), 132.
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