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Posted: November 16th, 2022

Automation of Marine Communication Systems

Automation of Marine Communication Systems
Task 1: The Reasons for Using a Gantt chart
Gantt charts are tools that are used by researchers to minimize and avoid confusion of significant elements in the research. They do so by providing users with a visual timeline showing the starting and the finishing points of specific tasks. The visual overview of the milestones and steps involved in completing tasks makes it possible for researchers to understand the whole project and provides memorable time-based tasks clearly (Wilson, 203 p. 430). Besides, the Gantt chart visual framework for the work schedule, the chances for misunderstanding are minimized which is particularly important for delivering highly complex projects. The stakeholders, therefore, have the same information about mutual expectations allowing them to focus their efforts on the desired protocol.
Secondly, Gantt charts show the relationship among different tasks to be carried out during research. The charts show how one work begins after the completion of another or overlapping to meet some research objectives (Keim, Kohlhammer, Ellis, and Mansmann, 2010 p. 12). The relationship among the said tasks is dependent upon the schedules for each task by means of affecting other tasks. The result of better task relationship assures that there are better workflow, optimized productivity and overall success of the project.
The third reason why Gantt charts are used is to ensure that resources are allocated efficiently for the successful accomplishment of tasks. The Gantt charts make it possible for researchers to note the tasks time-layout, clearly discerning the times and tasks to allocate and share funds to optimize resource use (Wilson, 203 p. 433). When the Gantt charts are carefully followed, the chances of keeping the project costs within the budget are bettered, and the project completion timeliness index improves. Lastly, the Gantt charts are very significant in getting the researchers to handle the future by reducing the tendency to be caught up in day-to-day tasks and encouraging the decision makers to look ahead and work to achieve the organization’s goals in the long-run (Wilson, 203 p. 434).
Task 2: Current and Future Developments at Maritime Limited
Following various challenges facing communication on maritime vehicles, there has been set, as early as a half a decade ago, some developments and improvements in the communication systems alongside other technical areas in maritime limited for 20 years ahead. E-Navigation is an example of the areas which require the use of high digital data exchange capacities while the new increased connectivity intended for the crew will have the need for increased bandwidths. Also in the offing are the quite anticipated VHF digital innovations. The list for both the ongoing and future development at the Maritime Limited continues to increase day by day in response to generating ideas.
Among other emerging communication technologies are the IALA Maritime Radio Communication Plan and the e-Navigation Strategy of the IMO’s, all targeted at modernizing the maritime communication systems to more robust communications such as satellite communications. Correspondingly, the new satellite systems such as Inmarsat Global Xpress, Telenor THOR 7, O3b and Iridium for LBand will supposedly bring competitiveness in the communication systems. Besides, they will reduce cost per bit while encouraging the development of the broadband systems to complement the legacy narrow bands (Plass, Clazzer, Fritz, Yasrine& Maurizio 2014 p. 25). The following section discusses the modernization of e-navigation, global maritime distress and safety system, autonomous ships and communication techniques in the Arctic regions at Maritime Limited.
The navigation sector of the maritime has been challenged and tested by all manner of challenges. There have been three major challenges in the navigation systems currently used follows.
The presence of unenhanced of digital bridge design reliability, integrity, and resilience hence only reduced penetration of information displays is possible via communication equipment.
There is also been deterioration in resilience and reliability of the on-board systems for Positioning, Navigation, and Timing.
Shore-based services have also not been improved and standardized resulting in poor quality reporting for search and rescue (SAR) and vessel traffic system (VTS) information.
The solution to the above mentioned problem is e-Navigation. E- Navigation is an underway project of the IMO’s that is concerned with the future development of digital systems (Plass et al. 2014 p. 28). The specific objectives and development strategies to implement the plan were developed by IMO and scheduled for the period between 2015 and 2019. The project is based on the already existing communication and navigation systems and equipment where possible. The e-navigation services used for different scenarios differ on the basis of the frequency and size. The scenes in reference include the open sea, port, and coast. The rationale for having the e-navigation systems different is the presumption of limited bandwidth availability so that live videos are not streamed (Plass et al. 2014 p. 36). The grouping of the e-navigation services has seven divisions mapped into six data carrier classes whose traffic demands can then be approximately determined. Few observations that are summative of the e-navigation system are that the utilization of the capacity of the automated information systems is almostmaximum and the capacity demands are lower at the open sea than at coast and in the ports (Plass et al. 2014 p. 41).
The e-navigation requires access to improved navigation safety information. The current Maritime Safety Information comprises meteorological warnings and forecasts, navigational warnings and SAR information propagated by MSI services that support two broadcast services, that is, FleetNET and SafetyNET. The disadvantage of the current system is that it does not specify information paths to a particular ship or area (Plass et al. 2014 p. 54). The Maritime Safety information ought to be unique to a particular voyage notices and updates to Mariners are to be automated and received electronically without delay.
Secondly, the integration of the system is required to harmonize the communication and navigation operations such as data collection and reporting among other operations.All the development and the automation of the maritime communication systems are required to be cost effective. Active communication systems are crucial on the sea due to the loneliness that the crews have to endure (Plass et al. 2014 p. 61). Therefore, there has been continued pressure from teams to get in touch with their families. Services such as internet access, SMS, and phone calls have been availed on the voyages to make it possible for communications of the people onboard and their contacts elsewhere (Plass et al. 2014 p. 61).
The communication in the arctic regions has been limited to regions that are below 76°N. This made the communication of people who work in the regions above 76°N with their families very hard. Such people include the oil explorers and the fishermen (Jensen, 2008 p. 110). The Arctic region is slowly becoming accessible to shipping because the more temperate climate it presently experiences reduces the presence of the permanent ice cover. Some ships transport cargo, used for fishing and cruising services in regions above 80°N while oil explorations extend above 75°N.
The use of geostationary satellites for communication in the Arctic region is theoretically limited to 81°N with 0° elevation but what has been practically achievable is approximately 76°N (Jensen, 2008 p. 115). Inmarsat satellites are used for communication up to around the around areas located 76°N except for regions located 120°E of the Russian Laptev Sea and close to 120°W of the Canadian Beaufort Sea. According to Jensen(2008 p. 115), the Cospas-Sarsat and Iridium polar orbiting satellites are capable of serving the whole Arctic region with the limitation being territorial whereas the development of HEO orbiting satellites are underway.
On the other hand, IMO has put a procedure in place to recognize the satellite systems alongside those provided by Cospas-Sarsat and Inmarsat. Commercial ships are required to comply with GMDSS provisions of the SOLAS Convention (Jensen, 2008 p. 115). The said Convention requires that such ships be Sea Area A4 worthy to sail above 76°N which implies that communication, reception, and distress alerting of Maritime Safety Information systems have to be installed on the ship. The Polar Code will soon be mandatory if IMO goes through with their draft and other communication and information exchange requirement besides the standard SOLAS requirements (Plass et al. 2014 p. 48).
Research and survey of the dangerous oceanic shores and some places around the water bodies have been unreachable for a long time. As a results, getting information from these locations has been impossible since there are either too risky to be reached by people or they are simply inaccessible. The solution for this problem has been the development of the autonomous or tele-operated ships. An autonomous vehicle is either unmanned or manned system that operates on its own. The systems are usually designed to reduce the risk of having human beings onboard especially in operations carried out in dangerous, dusty and dangerous areas (Jensen, 2008 p. 117). The unmanned autonomous systems are currently foreseen for applications such as inspection and maintenance of oil gas and wind farm industries, data collection for marine and weather science, law enforcement, environmental monitoring and search and rescue missions (Plass et al. 2014 p. 45). The unmanned systems are equipped with super sensor systems that can detect and avoid obstacles, provide positioning and navigation for the location, speed and route of the system (Plass et al. 2014 p. 45). The need for communication technology with a wireless monitoring and control onboard is perceived for maritime operations and so is the need for a reliable and robust communication architecture link capable of improving satellite communication service in the future activities of the autonomous ships. The superior features of unmanned systems makes them suitable for missions deemed either dangerous or unreachable for human beings.
In conclusion, e-navigation, global maritime distress and safety system, autonomous ships and communication techniques in the arctic Regions are currently undergoing modernization at the Maritime Limited. All the said marine communication technologies are set to improve the communication in the maritime department and hence improve safety.

References
Jensen, O., 2008. Arctic shipping guidelines: towards a legal regime for navigation safety and environmental protection?. Polar Record, 44(229), pp.107-114.
Keim, D.A., Kohlhammer, J., Ellis, G. and Mansmann, F. eds., 2010. Mastering the information age-solving problems with visual analytics.Florian Mansmann.
Plass, S., Clazzer, F., Fritz, B., Yasrine, I. and Maurizio, M., 2014. Maritime communications–Identifying current and future satellite requirements & technologies.
Wilson, J.M., 2003. Gantt charts: A centenary appreciation. European Journal of Operational Research, 149(2), pp.430-437.

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