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Posted: November 12th, 2022

History of the Internet

Computer Sciences and Information Technology
History of the Internet
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Topic Name: HISTORY OF THE INTERNET

History of the Internet
The internet is a worldwide interconnected computer system that uses Internet protocols to connect to other users irrespective of their geographic locations. It also serves as a communication system that connects data globally it links private, public, businesses via a telecommunication network. The internet began in 1958 with the creation of the Advanced Research Project Agency now known as the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency. The creation of this project led to the birth of the internet. The US government used telephone lines and wires for communication during the war in the 1950s which could be easily damaged in case of attack. In 1962 a scientist from ARPA Licklider suggested the connection of computers to ensure smooth communication even during attacks. This was known as the ARPA net network, it involves packet switching that made data transmission possible in 1965.
ARPA net was initially used for communication rather than providing services since the protocol for host-to-host was still being developed. The first network control protocol was completed in December 1970 by Stephen Crocker it was greatly used until its replacement in 1983. During the 1970s the first telnet protocol was developed this enabled a user on one machine to log on another machine over a network. In 1971 the File transfer protocol enabled the users to send or retrieve files by logging on computers. This also allowed the user to search for their files, read, and also transfer files to their machines. The first email was developed in 1972 by ray Tomlinson (Andrews, 2013).

This email application and the FTP enabled the researchers to communicate irrespective of their locations these were the early applications in networking development. Even though the ARPA net was the biggest working network, in 1973 Robert Harn and Vinton Cerf began identifying means of connecting networks that had different bandwidth, delays or errors. This research led to the birth of the Internet Protocol. Its main aim was interconnecting networks, it also defined packet format and error recovery mechanisms. In 1975 ARPA net had grown from its four nodes to over 100 nodes this was greatly contributed by the Local area network. A group led by Norman Abramson wanted to develop a remote access control for their systems that used a shared radio network. This idea led to various research that gave birth to Ethernet and the Atlantic Packet Satellite experiment. The former involved users connected together by a shared bandwidth while the latter involved the use of cables to share the network.
In 1980 the great number of computers connected to the Local area network led to an increase in the internet size. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, a project at the University of California produced UNIX known as the Berkeley System Integration. This involved integrated network capabilities and had a source code which led to great adoption by the community. The internet protocol was also greatly in use by the research community during this stage. The internet is a federation of service providers, education institution and even private-sector that exchange packets using IP addresses. It has got no individual owner, for one to use it they only have to connect on a computer with a service router, obtain the IP and commence communication (Internet Society, 2017).

Even though the standardization of the internet protocols today is done by the Engineering Task Force it goes way back to 1969. Stephen Croker was the first one to define the ARPA net protocols and the same system is still in use today to define and specify internet protocols. The 1970s marked a great period of network research, other networks other than ARPA net were also developed but were used by the scientists for research purposes. In 1975 ARPA net was transferred to the Defense Communication Agency it had great growth and ready to provide services. It was operational until 1989, in 1980 Computer Science net was developed. This network unlike the ARPA net that only allowed its contractors to use it the CS net was open to all computer science computers. This network was widely used in the 1980s before the launching of NSFNET by NFS. This network was referred to as network-of-networks and had a very high speed because it could connect to more than five supercomputers.
In 1988 a suitable router for this network was chosen the protocols of the router was improved to allow communication with the network topology. The domain name service was then developed that enabled the labeling of the hosts. The network was expanded to educational centers and even private sectors. In 1991 the Advance Network and Services upgraded the network and added a privately owned backbone for commercial sectors. By the early 1990s the internet was widely in use, it was also transferred from NFS to commercial providers. In 1995 the commercialization limitation on the internet was removed. In 1992 the new Internet Protocol the Hypertext markup Language was introduced. In 1993 the widespread use of the web was evident supported by the development of a mosaic graphic browser which enabled the use of videos, audio, and graphics. In 1998 over 30million computer hosts were connected to the internet. This has led to the uprise of many companies and also provides links for many services like books and search engines for obtaining programs (Coffman, 2001).
Reference
Andrews, E. (2013, December 18). Who Invented the Internet? Retrieved from https://www.history.com/news/who-invented-the-internet
Coffman, K. G., & Odlyzko, A. M. (2001, July 6). Growth of the Internet. Retrieved from http://www.dtc.umn.edu/~odlyzko/doc/oft.internet.growth.pdf
Internet Society. (2017, September 10). Brief History of the Internet. Retrieved from https://www.internetsociety.org/internet/history-internet/brief-history-internet/?gclid=Cj0KCQiA5dPuBRCrARIsAJL7oehWwwAogOmTDOnwzd6llF4AiZRw97uAslkaOJtvHYIaWN0pmeokLPkaArpwEALw_wcB

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