Crime is outlined to be a violation of an imposed decree or rule for which a becoming penalty will probably be given by an authority (Saferstein, 1990). Crime has all the time been an enormous dilemma in our society these days. Undesirable circumstances can’t be stopped from occurring, regardless of how innocent or safe a spot is likely to be, against the law can happen—which individuals concern about. Some individuals commit misdemeanor for causes not understandable by many, however it doesn’t matter what their causes are, will probably be dealt pretty with correct grounds for punishment.
Crimes previously had been troublesome to resolve and a few stays unsettled on account of insufficiency of evidences and strategies of investigation that may be utilized to resolve it (Fischer, 1987).
Nonetheless, authorities have been alarmed to note the necessity for growing strategies of investigation with a view to receive a social order in addition to crime prevention. It’s an indisputable fact that crimes today are repeatedly growing and other people affected by it are trying to find justice and demanding equity.
Numerous methods are employed to control conduct which incorporates imposing legal guidelines and policing individuals to make sure they comply with the principles to keep up peace and order.Whereas the decision for justice arises, the authorities are designing mechanisms with a view to provide you with efficient strategies of investigation, equipments and instruments to scale back crime, implement the regulation and uphold prison justice (O’Reilly-Fleming, 1996).
This analysis paper primarily discusses strategies utilized in prison investigations for homicide and theories utilized to a selected case examine, particularly how the Labeling, Environmental and Shaming principle facilitated the investigation of the case. This paper additionally intends to offer deep understanding of prison investigation strategies, the procedures, and methods utilized, important evidences and system evaluation that can assist the investigating staff or investigator arrive at a conclusion of fixing the case and pointing who the assassin was.
In keeping with Edwin H. Sutherland (in Fischer, 1987), criminology is described as a social-scientific examine which offers with crime as particular person and social phenomenon. It’s an interdisciplinary area in behavioral sciences specializing in sociology, psychology and regulation. In 1885, Raffaele Garofalo, an Italian regulation professor, used the time period criminology or criminologia in Italian. Criminology covers the processes of constructing legal guidelines, deviating to guidelines and response in the direction of breaking imposed insurance policies. All of those create a unified order of occasions.
Criminologists have devised completely different strategies from varied disciplines. They measure and assess crime over place and time. Furthermore, traits of criminals, victims and crime scenes are rigorously noticed utilizing completely different methods. Legislatures known as mala prohibita set legal guidelines that describe misdemeanor which violate social norms. Legal guidelines fluctuate with respect to its sort (e.g. playing legal guidelines), time and place. Mala in se are crimes similar to homicide, rape and theft, are universally outlawed (Fischer, 1987).
The present paper focuses on the case of Martha Moxley, and the way the Skakel brothers’ prison conduct could also be assessed juxtaposed towards the labeling principle, environmental principle and shaming principle. It relates the events concerned within the case, specifically the suspects, to the ideas which are espoused by every of those criminological theories.The labeling principle asserts that sure stereotypes could affect how an individual behaves; on this occasion, the wealth and affect of the Skakel brothers did impact their apathy and lack of guilt in being suspects within the case.
The setting principle, however, reveals that the circle of pals through which the brothers have interfaced with did have an affect on how they’ve reacted to the crime – with indifference – as bolstered by their prosperous circle who didn’t care about being concerned in crime believing they will purchase their manner out of it. Lastly, the disgrace principle means that there was completely no expression of guilt or disgrace on the a part of the brothers, from the time they have been pronounced as suspects to the time they have been convicted. Once more, a reinforcement of how they have been introduced up as spoiled kids, rising as much as be spoiled adults.
Previous to discussing the case correct, a go to of the historical past of contemporary criminology could also be worthwhile. Fashionable criminology has began in the course of the 19th century. Gone are the times when free will that portrays crime as an consequence of actions is simply based mostly on rational calculation. Earlier criminology means that individuals who dedicated crimes are simply technique of breaking the regulation and thus, prices needs to be outweighed.
Felony expertise has succeeded in exhibiting a unique view of crime as prison circumstances these days, require a foundation for clarification. As an illustration, crime was considered as a sort of occasion whereby particular person was pressured or provoked by a number of components which are past his management. Thus, trendy criminology now includes explanations based mostly on the seek for possible causes (Fischer, 1987).
Moreover, there are factors through which trendy criminology and the normal criminology agrees. Conventional criminology depends on rational estimation and trendy criminology, however, although makes use of strategies and equipments in deciphering crimes, additionally makes use of rational estimation as a floor to name for an investigation. Fashionable criminology focuses on deterministic elucidation of driving forces which causes against the law to happen.
In keeping with organic positivists Cesare Lombroso, a scientific and scientific method needs to be established in finishing up a selected approach as criminals have inherent traits which are deemed resulting in the reason for crime. If the scheme has been correctly designed thus theoretical concepts will probably be formulated. Methods and strategies will probably be devised, in addition to assortment of findings will probably be carried out that can outcome to establishing the decision of the crime.
From right this moment’s perspective, such assumptions appear peculiar and at the moment are handled with shock. Furthermore, completely different construction of methodologies has been crucial, although with completely different ranges of study. For the reason that creation of contemporary criminology, successive surges of criminological explanations have been noticed.
Martha Moxley Murder Case
With the aim to current and display a deep understanding of criminological methods and designs, in addition to theories utilized in a case examine, the creator intends to make use of Martha’s Murder Case as a foundation for evaluation and examine.
On October 30, 1975, in Greenwich, Connecticut, Martha Moxley’s group scheduled an evening out for pranks to do the normal Halloween actions. They threw out rest room papers and eggs and sprayed shaving cream round their neighborhood and one among their innocent pranks victims have been Tommy and Michael Skakel. Tommy and Michael Skakel have been identified within the neighborhood for unhealthy conduct boasting of their uncle Senator Robert F. Kennedy (Geringer, n.d.).
Round 9:30 PM of October 30, 1975, Martha Moxley left Tommy and Michael’s home. Although her home was not that removed from the Skakel’s, she by no means reached her house. Her physique was present in her yard the subsequent day with pants and underwear pulled down. Although this was the case, there was no proof of rape or sexual assault. She had a number of bruises that confirmed she was overwhelmed a number of occasions.
The offender used a shaft and a chunk of it was the instrument used to stab her neck. After the preliminary investigation, the investigatory staff came upon that the shaft used was an costly one, a Toney Penna model which belonged to Anne Skakel, Tommy and Michael’s mom who died of most cancers two years earlier than the stated incident. Accordingly, Martha was final seen with Tommy Skakel. It was additionally present in Martha’s diary that Tommy was after her and had a number of makes an attempt of bringing Martha to first base and second base. The policemen did cursory search nonetheless they weren’t given a search warrant on account of influential causes (Geringer, n.d.).
The case was lengthened since a yr after the crime; the Skakels refused to bear investigations and had stopped cooperating. Atty. Emmanuel Margolis, the Skakel’s household lawyer insisted that the Skakel brothers have been harmless (Geringer, n.d.).
Skakels weren’t the one prime suspects for the crime. A younger neighbor who was dwelling with the Skakels was additionally questioned. Borders dwelling alongside the Interstate 95 have been additionally questioned contemplating that that they had no circumstantial proof to make use of moreover the membership, not even one witness who may state what actually occurred (Geringer, n.d.).
The case had slept for a number of years, not even a single improvement till someday in 1983, one of many advocates of Greenwich employed Len Levitt, to jot down in regards to the case and it has then turned controversial once more. Many publishers heated up the problem till a rumor that William Kennedy Smith, which at the moment was dealing with a rape case had one thing to do with the homicide. Although, irrelevant to the case, it aroused public curiosity bringing again the case to air (Geringer, n.d.).
Martha Moxley’s homicide case remained unsolved for a few years. However, authorities continued to analysis and examine on it. It was onerous as a result of there have been few leads to not point out that these leads have been additionally irrelevant and much associated from the case (Geringer, n.d.).
In 1994, Detective Frank Garr who was a retired Greenwich policeman took the job as an investigator on the State Prosecutors Workplace and was assigned the Martha Moxley file. This didn’t give brilliant mild to the case although. Few years later, Detective Mark Fuhrman began writing a guide notably mentioning the Martha Moxley’s case. This gave hope to Martha’s household (Geringer, n.d.).
Growth of complete and coherent theories for a given crime has risen to provide approach to criminology’s progress. Furthermore, systematic assortment and evaluation of gathered evidences are components that contribute to the development of fixing crimes. These evidences and findings are known as knowledge and a variety of knowledge is commonly utilized in contribution to a criminological enterprise Evaluation of the Martha Moxley’s case took investigators a protracted time frame for the case to be deciphered since there are not any robust evidences and that gathered knowledge or findings have been scarce (Saferstein, 1990).
Naturally, findings are sometimes generated by completely different types of approach. These are initially carried out by way of completely different strategies:
- Structured Interview
The structured view system is typically utilized by investigators to supply knowledge. Potential suspects are being interviewed on this approach and asks important questions which may be associated or useful to unravel the occasion (Saferstein, 1990).
Examples of the questions are (utilizing Martha’s case):
- Are you aware Martha Moxley?
- How are you associated to her?
- When did you final see her?
- The place have been you and what have been have been you doing on the time of the crime?
Structured interviews are designed to permit the circulation of data spontaneously because the interviewee solutions the questions. Which means the next query will fluctuate relying on the reply to the primary query. An instance for this is able to be:
Q1: Are you aware Martha Moxley?
Q2: How are you associated to her?
A2: She is my buddy.
Q3: Had been you together with her on that evening?
This fall: She was doing the normal Halloween follow together with her pals; you have been her buddy however how come you weren’t together with her?
A5: I used to be with in my grandmother’s home as a result of it’s her birthday.
The investigator stops there as a result of the reply was now not resulting in the case.
- Social Survey design
The Social Survey Design is methodology the place questions are initially designed for the individuals to reply. It’s related with the structured interview design. This methodology reproduces number of potentialities in the issue which offers shut leads and suspects (Saferstein, 1990).
- Correlation Evaluation
That is how knowledge are analyzed housing the necessity for broad analysis technique. For instance, after doing the survey design and structured interview, the investigator will verify the possible relation of possible suspects within the case.
The above have been simply preliminary strategies of prison investigation. These strategies should not enough to level to a result in what transpired to the Martha Moxley’s case, and right here is the place the necessity for theoretical assumptions and strategies come up (Saferstein, 1990).
Information that have been gathered are indispensable for the proceedings of the investigation, although methods that have been described earlier have been simply utilized for preliminary investigation. Although in several methods, the variety and plurality inside criminological undertaking are thought of assumptions of the character of crime, forms of knowledge could also be implicit (Maxfield, 1989).
These are assumptions similar to crime is legitimately measured relying on the extent of study both by social group, particular person and primacy which might then be given to causality and background of any form of evaluation. A knowledge distinction is often sluggish and requires full period of time. Nonetheless, distinctions assist depict the vary of obtainable knowledge that are associated to forms of strategies for use (Saferstein, 1990).
Theories of Crime Associated to the Martha Moxley Case
That is also called the social response principle. This design focuses by how the identification of a person is influenced by how she or he is assessed or “labeled” by the general public . Along with that, it’s involved with the linguistic tendency of majorities to negatively label people who find themselves noticed to be deviant from norms and can be related to the idea of stereotyping. Labeling principle has been accused of selling impractical coverage implications, and criticized for failing to clarify society’s most severe offenses (O’Reilly-Fleming, 1996).
In connection to the Martha Moxley’s case, the labeling principle was utilized. The Skakel brothers are identified to have appalling and inexcusable conduct of their neighborhood. Along with that, they typically boast that they’re Kennedy which makes them really feel authoritative for having such wealth, affect, connection and energy. Provided that Tommy and Michael are labeled indifferently by the individuals of their neighborhood for having such ghastly conduct, and likewise each being recognized to have curiosity to Martha Moxley, the brothers are the prime suspect of the homicide case (Leyton, 1986).
Furthermore, since these individuals are rich and influential, the case hasn’t been solved or appeared into by the authorities for a very long time; extra just like the case was forgotten. These are ordinary stereotypes amongst individuals associated or have political influences. It’s doable that the police or the authorities have inaccuracies with their investigations. Additionally, it’s an indisputable fact that because the Skakel household are wealthy, they might have paid somebody to cover the reality of investigation. Neither of the assumptions are correct, nonetheless with this principle, it clearly illustrates that labeling is a part of this crime case (Gresswell & Hollin, 1994 ; McKenzie, 1995)).
This design defines the course of dealing or discussing environmental components when formulating or creating directions, program, plans or merchandise. In 1960s, the ideas of contemplating environmental components have been exact and open by the environmental motion, although the Classical design thought of this principle as properly. CPTED or also called the crime prevention by way of environmental design is a mufti-disciplinary method of discouraging prison manners and conduct. The strategy of this method is centered to the potential than can persuade delinquent choices that lead prison acts (O’Reilly-Fleming, 1996).
Reviewing this principle, it seems that the setting has a big impact with the intent of the first suspects to kill Martha Moxley. There exist a variety of components which will contribute to the evidences why the Skakel brothers have been pointed to be the crime’s suspect. In keeping with some opinions, the Skakel brothers are accompanied with a few of their pals through the evening of the crime. (Leyton, 1986; Maxfield, 1989).
In relation to the Labeling principle, because the brothers got here from an influential household, one of many spoiled brat boasted that he can go away with something due to his connections. Additionally, they’ve been discussing in regards to the homicide even earlier than it occurred. Along with this, whereas in rehabilitation middle, one among them confessed that he murdered Martha Moxley. Furthermore, their pals dedicated homicide previously and have little question of doing it once more, which makes evidences or claims robust in regards to the brothers (Leyton, 1986).
Shaming is outlined as all societal processes of expressing social disapproval which have the intention or impact of invoking regret within the individual being shamed/or condemnation by others who turn into conscious of the shaming (Holmes, 1989; Tomaszewski, 1997). The conception of shaming is markedly intensive, such that this principle will not be essentially public, humiliating or a particular kind of conduct. It’d contain a dialogue between mother and father and a baby of how an act impacted upon others. Equally, a properly handed down by a court docket is likely to be evaluated on the extent to which it’s shaming; the extent to which it’s an expression of disapproval towards the offender’s conduct (Harris, 2006).
Going again to the case, shaming principle has not been utilized to the brothers. They weren’t subjected to a shameful scene have been they should be arrested and interrogated by authorities. Along with that, since they’ve a rich and influential household, they have been protected towards any hurt or harm which may be carried out is that they have been arrested.
Furthermore, the brothers didn’t expertise the method the place the case continues to be below investigation since it seems that authorities could have forgotten this case for fairly a while. In return, not being shamed gave the brothers confidence that both of them will probably be convicted. They didn’t even confirmed regret to what have occurred to the sufferer, exhibiting that they are going to be capable to surpass something that will probably be accused to them (Holmes, 1989; Tomaszewski, 1997).
Going Again to the Case
Mark Fuhrman assured to call the prison; nonetheless Greenwich authorities didn’t allow him. They refused to be interviewed claiming they didn’t wish to jeopardize with the continued investigation. Mark Fuhrman claimed that the authorities have been hiding outdated inaccuracies. He stated in his guide that figuring out a mistake and never permitting it to be corrected is such a disastrous error (Geringer, n.d.).
Detective Stephen Carroll, a kind of cooperating with Fuhrman agreed that there was a mistake within the investigation because the police authorities within the space has not dealt with any homicide case for 30 years to not point out that the concerned are rich households. It was in 1998 when Mark Fuhrman’s guide was launched. He bravely talked about the identify of the Skakel brothers because the prime suspects for the homicide.
On the identical time, one other guide written by Timothy Dumas additionally involved the identify of the Skakel brothers within the homicide case. Someday in Might 1998, a panel of judges authorized the request of the prosecutor to conduct a grand jury investigation for the Martha Moxley’s case appointing Bridgeport Superior Courtroom Decide George N. Thim to deal with the investigation of the evidences gathered by the Greenwich Police Authority and Lawyer’s workplace (Geringer, n.d).
This case could be very uncommon in Connecticut as such grand juries are solely used when the remainder of investigative procedures failed. Decide Thim was in a position to launch subpoena to witnesses. Connecticut prosecutors would not have the authority to challenge subpoena which in flip had paralyzed them to behave on the Martha Moxley’s case (Geringer, n.d.).
The Grand jury performed an interview with 50 witnesses as they have been related to the case. They have been earlier residents of Elan Faculty in Maine the place the older Skakel was allegedly accused for a homicide case whereas rehabilitating. A number of closed door hearings have been held for 18 months and all of those formally resulted in December of 1999. Decide Thim was formally given the authority to resolve whether or not there was sufficient proof to challenge a warrant of arrest.
At 9:00 AM of January 19, 2000 in a convention in Bridgeport, some prosecutors introduced that an issuance of warrant of arrest for unnamed juvenile and Michael Skakel was the individual judged. Michael Skakel was surrendered to Frank Garr and he was accused for homicide prices and was given bail amounting to $500,00zero to get launched (Geringer, n.d).
The Worth of Strategies
Criminological strategies goal to hold out criminological analysis. It doesn’t concern answering questions similar to “what it’s?” or “what it needs to be?” (Saferstein, 1990). Nonetheless, in Martha Moxley’s scenario, it could be a folly to disregard core issues of criminology and the completely different theories bore on them. Then again, strategies which have implications for such methods in conceptualizing issues are wanted for the kind of clarification. Some analysis strategies are extra acceptable and helpful to some features of the investigation.
As an illustration, detailed insights into methods through which crime is finished should not more likely to be analyzed by format which is brief and extremely structured (Williams & Flewelling, 1987). Along with that, some completely different theories appear to have partiality as to the strategies due to the several types of knowledge that may be collected, the unit or degree of study that are utilized and primacy that are used for seek for causes (Saferstein, 1990).
With this in thoughts, what’s the want for a way? Totally different theme of strategies may be interpreted narrowly utilizing the several types of knowledge gathered by criminological researchers, and with these, the info are evaluated. A number of technicalities of those issues often stay buried an unanswered. Utilizing each methods, knowledge are invariably considered besides with particular curiosity.
Methodological validity suggests elementary justification of strategies employed in a criminological analysis. It’s nearly related as to what was described above although it usually have interaction to consideration of theories, methods and assumptions which are implicit in a selected methodology or design. These assumptions are often certain up with challenge in regards to the manners through which theories and strategies join (Maxfield, 1989; Saferstein, 1990).
Analytical strategies translated from different disciplines are the place criminologists and prison justice researchers rely upon. The analytical methodology of criminology and prison justice, like different fields of social analysis, originated in statistics, econometrics, psychometrics and epidemiology (Lion, 1991). There’s a fast tempo of improvement in analytical strategies in criminology these days.
Nonetheless, they key in advancing our data in criminology is to raised perceive knowledge and measurement reasonably than growing refined methods. Criminologists and prison justice researchers play a serious position in manipulating the info they make the most of. The content material and kind of knowledge that will probably be gathered can restrict or develop the vary of questions that will probably be used within the investigation (Saferstein, 1990).
Beneath are a number of the strategies used within the Martha Moxley’s homicide case. These strategies are additionally generally used within the ordinary homicide circumstances the place leads are imprecise and evidences are inadequate.
- DNA TEST
The significance of an acceptable and efficient method to processing against the law scene ought to by no means be taken with no consideration.
A genealogical DNA check is used to look at the nucleotides at sure places on a person DNA for genealogical functions (Ratner, 1996; Steadman, 2003). The outcomes are supposed to haven’t any informative medical worth and don’t decide particular genetic illnesses or problems. The regular process for taking a genealogical DNA check includes taking a painless cheek-scraping at house and mailing the pattern to a hereditary family tree laboratory for testing (Ratner, 1996; Tovar, 2004).
Some laboratories supply to retailer DNA samples for ease of future testing. The hottest ancestry exams are Y chromosome (Y-DNA) testing and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) testing (Warren, 1991). Different exams try to find out a researcher’s complete genetic historical past and/or ethnic origins (Comey & Budowle,1991; Geller & Warrington, 1994.Steadman, 2003).
Blood Stain. This methodology discusses functions, analysis and the newest view of bloodstain interpretation inside the criminological system on the appellate ranges, in addition to scientific approaches and developments within the area. Scientific and Authorized Functions of Bloodstain Sample Interpretation helps attorneys who’re cross-examining and questioning professional witnesses to have a great working data of this methodology (Culliford, 1971; Grispino, 1990; Laux, 1991; Scott,1987).
Fingerprints Evaluation. The situation of the sufferer’s fingers would usually not permit for the conventional fingerprinting approach to be efficiently carried out. Principally in these circumstances, the sufferer’s fingers would should be taken away from the physique to the laboratory. Within the laboratory, the fingers can be dehydrated by a collection of substance soaking methods to return the tissue to a delicate and pliable situation (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1984; Schuetts-Hendrickson, 1983; Spear et al, 2003; Trozzi et al, 2000; Wilgus, 2002).
Crime Scene Diagram. An image of the crime seen is taken by investigators as step one of this system. This fashion, they’ve the thought of the important thing parts that must be analyzed. Along with that, this may present itself simpler clarification of the operate of a selected component or object within the crime scene (Saferstein, 1990).
Tough sketches should be legible and orderly. Restoration or preparation of a clear copy is required by investigators to current to the court docket and assist their claims. Nonetheless, it can take time earlier than paperwork like these will probably be offered. Furthermore, it could be uncovered. A graphing paper is required on this methodology. Looking for the outer border of the scene is the place the tough sketch begins (Saferstein, 1990).
An investigator ought to purchase a scientific method in gathering, gathering and preserving evidences. In Martha Moxley’s case, the evidences needs to be preserved, stored or documented because the proceedings for the case took an extended time. The researcher or the investigator is decide to acquire and acquire as a lot knowledge as doable to find out the importance and scope of evidences which may be accessible earlier than going to the crime scene. This info or knowledge could include statements of witnesses, statements of suspects, and knowledge from the authority or responding officer, detectives, and so forth. (Saferstein, 1990).
Information are gathered to keep away from the destruction of any vital and/or delicate proof similar to hint proof, and so forth. Logic and eager remark are vital components wanted by investigators in trying to find helpful and vital evidences; furthermore, she or he ought to stretch his or her personal creativeness and extra importantly has to have a good and cheap judgment. As investigators and/or crime researchers turn into extra skilled, they start to determine that particular patterns become visible and stable fundamentals are peculiar amongst related circumstances.
That is because of the erratic nature of faction and the forces of dysfunction. As soon as the examiner has gathered as a lot knowledge as doable; then he ought to type a written or psychological plan to go on with the gathering, documentation and preservation of such evidences (McKenzie, 1995). The investigator or police officer must also go by any pertinent knowledge to the laboratory analyst. This permits the concerned to make choices about the most effective method and strategies to the scrutiny from the proof.
The examiner ought to completely examine each doc that will probably be collected. Each side of the crime scene evaluation needs to be monitored, from the preliminary stroll in the direction of the preservation of the collected evidences. Documentation is vital to file the state of the crime image and its associated verification as a lot as doable to their unique circumstance on the crime. Modifications, although minimal, is mostly inevitable between the crime scene and investigation durations (Williams & Flewelling, 1987).
Different individuals within the image might also innocently or involuntarily alter the scene. At any circumstance, the proof have to be properly documented as good as to regardless of the situation will permit. There are variety of instruments accessible for documenting proof together with notes, videotape, images, sketches, and chain of custody types. The investigator could resolve to make use of a number of or all of those strategies of documentation. Along with that, this documentation will probably be used sooner or later to refresh the investigator’s reminiscences of the case. .
The labeling principle, crime prevention by way of environmental design and shaming principle are all mentioned within the Martha Moxley case. All the stated theories are utilized in her homicide case. These theories make evidences towards the Skakel brother stronger. One principle is expounded to or is one way or the other related to the opposite. All of them defined why such crime occurred, doable causes for suspect’s conduct and why leads level to a selected suspect. Although trial of this case took an extended time, that is additionally thought of proof supported by one of many theories mentioned on this paper.
Against the law scene investigation usually begins with a criminologist or investigator strolling by way of the realm the place the crime came about. The space or area of the crime scene is named the “observe” the place all evidences may be discovered and actions related to the crime occurred. It’s often marked by the incidence of proof. The “observe” in a homicide case consists of level of admission, place of the physique, areas the place the suspect could have cleaned up and the exit.
The goal is to notice the situation of possible proof and to mentally illustrate how the crime was processed. . The stroll by way of ought to start as near the purpose of admission as doable. The very first place the investigators ought to scrutinize is the place on which they’re about to tramp. If any knowledge is discovered, then an indicator needs to be positioned on the location as an recommendation to not step on the factor of curiosity.
Criminological strategies and analysis methods utilized in any crime investigation are important within the progress of fixing an illegal case. With these strategies, although it requires acceptable data, efficient methods and intensive learning, a light-weight that can result in the revelation of who the offender is will probably be proven.
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