Posted: August 26th, 2022

An audio earpiece such as Apple Airpods Pro

Query 1

An audio earpiece such as Apple Airpods Pro has spatial audio characteristic that may monitor human head motion to provide encompass sound impact. Assuming you might be listening to the audio that’s streaming from the Macbook Pro to your earpiece, the audio sign has a elementary part of four KHz and its second harmonics at Zero.25 V and Zero.125 V respectively.

It passes by the anti-aliasing filter earlier than it goes by the eight bits 2โ€™s complement ADC contained in the earpiece to course of the audio sign constancy. The processed audio sign goes by an amplifier with a quantity acquire of three and produces further 4th and fifth harmonics at Zero.075 V and Zero.05 V respectively.

(a) Execute the calculation of each sampling frequency and bandwidth of the anti-aliasing filter. Therefore, plot the three dB bandwidth spectrum.

(b) Analyse the quantization degree that’s required to cowl the total voltage swing of two V peak-to-peak of the spatial audio enter sign on the earpiece. Therefore, acquire the quantization error vary with the truncation rule getting used within the conversion technique of ADC. Analyze the quantization degree that’s wanted to cowl the total voltage swing of two V peak-to-peak of the spatial audio enter sign on the earpiece. So, use the truncation rule used within the ADC conversion course of to determine the vary of quantization errors.

(c) Analyse the ADC binary illustration for an instantaneous audio enter sign of -Zero.6 V.

(d) Describe the standard of the earpiece audio efficiency by calculating its complete harmonic distortion (THD) on the amplifier output in proportion. Therefore, plot the amplitude spectrum of the amplifier on the output.

Query 2

(a) A YouTube music is streaming on-line from the Web to a pc that’s geared up with an audio multiplicative mixer software program. The music has three sign parts with frequency of four kHz, 9 kHz, and 19 kHz with amplitude of four V, 2 V and 1 V peaks respectively.

(i) Describe the frequency spectrum for the music.

(ii) The music passes by the pcโ€™s multiplicative mixer software program. It produces numerous beat frequencies amongst one another. Clarify the blending course of by calculating the beat frequencies.

(iii) Analyse by illustration on the amplitude spectrum of the output of the multiplicative mixer in Query 2(a)(ii). Therefore, point out the beat frequencies within the plot.

(b) An amplitude modulation (AM) expertise is used the place the audio music sign is broadcasting to the ship for crew leisure through skywave propagation. The audio modulating sign is given as (๐‘ก) = 1 + eight cos(20000๐œ‹๐‘ก) V whereas the service is given as ๐‘(๐‘ก) = 5 cos(20000000๐œ‹๐‘ก) + 5 cos(30000000๐œ‹๐‘ก) V.

(i) Derive and analyse by illustration on the frequency spectrum of the spatial modulated sign.

(ii) Decide the receiver service and derive the bandwidth of the recovering filter with the intention to get better the modulating sign.

Query three

(a) Talk about with illustration on the precept of vital band and frequency masking.

(b) The Blue-ray sampling charge is 192 kHz and 24 bits coding are employed to file 1000 minutes of two channel stereo uncompressed track. Execute the calculation to analyse the variety of Blue-ray required to retailer the songs, assuming a DVD dimension is 25 GB.

(c) MIDI protocol is used to reveal the appliance of audio expertise in multimedia. A set of MIDI subroutines is being hooked up under. They can be utilized in a C-language program to regulate MIDI system. The subroutine parameters will be specified within the MIDI specification in Appendix I and all parameter values should be in hexadecimal format. Please use the subroutines to do the next operations.

Query four

System Begin and choose track quantity 11 at place to begin at a rely of 200
(three marks) Channel 10 performs low piano A word for 2000 ms at most quantity after which center quantity. (three marks) Channel 12 performs word at 7040 Hz for 1000 ms at quarter quantity after which center quantity following components to acquire pitch worth given as P = 69 + 12log2(f/440). (three marks) Channel 15 performs word at 3520 Hz for 3000 ms at center loudness after which silent following components to acquire pitch worth given as P = 69 + 12log2(f/440).

(a) Talk about and illustrate early reflection and late reverberation. Therefore clarify the vital distance.

(b) Analyse the facility distinction (PD) discount in dB on the receiver for 2 sound alerts which have travelled 5 m and 25 m respectively. Assume uniform media transmission. Clarify what’s the consequence when each direct blocked and mirrored sound sign are completely out of section with one another however equal in power. Identify ONE (1) utility that use this characteristic.

(c) Assume a human put on a spatial audio monitoring earpiece that tracks the top motion with respect to the sound supply. The sound supply is transmitting music sign at 50 levels on the proper with respect to the centre of the human. Receive the Inter-aural delay (ITD) of sound waves, assuming the gap between two ears is 30 cm. Analyse the differentiating functionality of the ear with the calculated ITD. Assume the pace of sound wave in air is 340 m/s.

(d) To create sound echoes, reverberation filter is used to provide numerous reflection sound. Its output response is given as (๐‘›)=๐‘ฅ(๐‘›โˆ’1)โˆ’๐‘”โˆ—๐‘ฆ(๐‘›โˆ’2) the place ๐‘ฅ(๐‘›) is the enter energy degree sequence of and ๐‘” is the coefficient that determines the decay degree of reverberation with a worth of Zero.2. Draw the Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter implementation of the above filter and decide the output at 9 seconds. Assume enter and output stays Zero when ๐‘› = Zero and n is an integer.

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