Program Development for A Government
This is a paper to be completed is 4 pages. Please follow only what has been provided in the instructions.
• Programs in Government Agencies and Departments
As a human services professional, you are aware of the unique context of practice for a government agency. You may even have worked for the government at some point in your career. The rules and regulations for working in the government support transparency and provide accountability to the government and the people. Often, this requires additional scrutiny from the public and the press. Systems of checks and balances are in place to monitor and assess activities, expenditures, and ethical behavior.
In this unit you will learn about the unique context of a government agency, including ethical concerns, in relation to sponsoring a new program. You will also submit your Program Development for a Government Agency assignment.
Use the Capella library to read the following seminal overview of the three types of entities that host programs:
• O’Connor, M. K., & Netting, F. E. (2009). Organization practice: A guide to understanding human service organizations (2nd ed.). Wiley.
o Chapter 1, “Human Service Practice in a Diverse Organizational Landscape,” pages 3–40.
Use the Internet to read the following:
• DiIanni, D. (n.d.). The legal framework of transparency and accountability within the context of privatization [PDF]. http://www.lwvroguevalley.org/pdf_docs/privatization-study/LWV-privatization-definition.pdf
• National Conference of State Legislatures. (2017, September 21). Overview | Center for Ethics in Government. https://www.ncsl.org/research/ethics/ethics-overview.aspx
• Schilling, B. (2016, September 6). 3 major differences between government and nonprofit accounting. https://www.capitalbusiness.net/resources/3-major-differences-government-nonprofit-accounting/
• United States Office of Government Ethics. (n.d.). https://www.oge.gov/
Riverbend City ® Activity
The Local News Special
• Initial Report
• Nonprofit Rep
• Business Rep
• End of Broadcast
When large problems impact a community, human service leaders in all sectors of the economy are needed to respond.
Sometimes their response is individual, and other times there are collaborative and coordinated efforts to address this issue.
In this simulation, you will learn about the nature of an opioid epidemic afflicting Riverbend City, a mid-sized city located in the Midwest. Different parts of the city – government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit businesses – are responding in their own unique ways, based on the resources, challenges, and constraints faced by their sector.
Jesse Cann: Welcome to Eye on Riverbend. This is Jesse Cann, reporting for KQMS.
For the past nine years, Hennessy County has seen a steady uptick in deaths and ambulance calls related to opioid overdoses. Recently, this trend has exploded to crisis levels. In the most recent 12 months, the number of opioid-related deaths in the county has jumped by 70% over the preceding year.
While the majority of the deaths and ambulance calls have been in Riverbend City, rural portions of the county – and the nearby Standing Bear Ridge Reservation – have also been hit hard, leaving leaders at the city, county, and reservation level stunned. What began, according to several authorities, as a trend in well-intentioned over prescription of pain medication has blossomed into a crushing wave of street drugs and human misery.
In this special report, I’ll be talking to people involved with the crisis at all levels. We’ll examine what’s happening, why it’s happening, and what can be done.
Join me on this KQMS in-depth Special Report.
Jesse Cann: As Mayor of Riverbend City, Keith Bauer is on the front lines of Hennessy County’s battle to cope with the epidemic.
Keith Bauer: As mayor, I’ve seen problems come and go, but I’ve never seen anything erupt from chronic to acute the way this has. I’m proud to be leading the charge.
Now, Riverbend City, like most of the country, has had an opioid situation for years. It was bad but pretty steady state for a long time. We’re not completely sure what’s changed with the recent explosion. I think part of it is just a numbers game, that we’ve reached a critical mass of people in the second part of that process I was just talking about. But another part of it, probably directly related, is that the markets on the street have adapted to fit the situation. The streets are just flooded with cheap Mexican heroin now, and Fentanyl.
I’ve guided Riverbend City towards a harm-reduction approach to the crisis. I know that’s not as satisfying as a tough law-and-order regime, but I’m interested in results. There’s a place for tough law enforcement. Of course, there is. But my goal is to help people, not make headlines with big busts. I’m working closely with the police department to focus our enforcement efforts on distribution. Obviously, possession is against the law and I’m not talking about decriminalization or anything like that. But the chief and I want our police force focused on saving lives first, disrupting distribution networks second, and enforcing possession laws as a clear third priority. The single most effective thing we’ve been able to do is get a Naloxone kit – that’s kind of an emergency antidote for overdoses – in every police car. If someone’s in crisis, we can’t always count on an ambulance getting there in time. Giving police kits and the training to use them saves lives. We know that for a fact. But the kits are expensive, and so is the training.
Part of disrupting the distribution networks means working with the police force to influence situation on the streets themselves. There’s a virtuous cycle we can promote. If we work aggressively on quality of life in the streets, nip petty crime in the bud, and make people feel safe, then there are more law-abiding people out and about, and that situation inherently makes it harder for an open-air drug market to establish itself. We want people to feel safe and comfortable on the streets of Riverbend City! This is never going to be a complete solution, of course, but it can certainly make an impact.
The city government is also working hard to partner with the school district; we think that’s crucial. City commissioners have worked closely with county authorities and school administrators to educate students- collaborative work in schools on prevention is a cornerstone of our approach. I’d like to particularly call out School District Superintendent Simonson on the launch of her “Not Even Once” campaign; it’s a bold, in-your-face attempt to make students see the harsh truths about these drugs. Law enforcement is heavily involved in the program, in an educational role. Obviously, parents have the biggest role in educating their children about the dangers of addiction. But institutions can help, too, even if it’s just getting a conversation started. Of course, efforts like this can’t be one-size-fits-all. Riverbend City is a very diverse place, and the student bodies of our schools vary widely. Cultural context varies widely; we can’t effectively reach kids from the north side by talking to them the same way we talk to kids from Lindner Hills.
I know there’s a lot left to do. But I’m confident that the work I’m doing at the city level – in tandem with my counterparts at the county and state levels, as well as people in the private and nonprofit sectors – is going to get us through this. I’m excited to announce that, going forward, we’ll be working with the National City-County Task Force on Opioids. That kind of pooling of resources and ideas, that’s the key. One thing I want people to be aware of: Riverbend City is not taking this lying down, and we’re going to work 24 hours a day to beat this menace.
Jesse Cann: If Mayor Bauer’s view from City Hall lets him see the big picture, others involved have more of a street-level view. Alfonso de Quesada is the executive director of Riverbend Service Alliance, or RSA, a human-services group active in the city’s Ruby Lake neighborhood.
Alfonso de Quesada: *sighs* Yeah, it’s bad. It’s really, really bad out there. I’m not just saying that through my job. This is personal for me. I lost a niece three months ago, and there are several people in my extended circle who’re in treatment or in recovery or just trying to figure out how to deal with some kind of habit. Our focus is to help people at the neighborhood level. RSA offers addiction counseling and outpatient treatment, for one thing. When that’s not enough, we also do referrals to inpatient treatment. And there’s some nuance we have to deal with their; not all treatment facilities are appropriate for all people. We’re very conscious of referring our constituents to treatment programs that show cultural competence, that are going to be able to work effectively with people of different backgrounds.
All of these can be very effective programs, but there’s a bad scale problem, you know? We only have so many counselors and so much physical space. We run through our bandwidth pretty quick. It’s great to be able to help people, even if the help is just a referral. But it haunts you to know that for everyone you help, there’s God knows how many people out there that you can’t get to.
We try to supplement the direct counseling work with outreach and education. That’s such a huge front, too, that you feel overwhelmed, feel like you have to just pick one aspect and zero in on it. We’ve been working hard lately on educational outreach to pregnant women, trying to get information to them about what happens if you’re pregnant and hooked. Ever heard of neonatal abstinence syndrome? It’s when a baby’s born to a mother with an opioid addiction and the baby essentially goes cold turkey, has withdrawal symptoms, and then as a second-order effect can have trouble bonding with the mother. It’s bad, bad stuff, and no one would ever want to face it. We have an active program to work with the OB/GYNs in Riverbend City, to use them as an educational pipeline to women who are pregnant and need our help.
I appreciate the fact that the mayor’s taking a harm-reduction approach. That’s exactly what I’d suggest to him, if he asked me. If we can, we try to align our services to complement the city’s efforts. For instance: I think we as an organization actually have better inroads to the city’s Spanish-speaking population than the city itself does. So that’s a community where we can be really effective. There’s that cultural competency component I was talking about earlier. I’d like to go farther with that. There’s only so much we can do as an organization at a big structural level, but I think we could fill an important role doing some kind of education or outreach. I talked about pregnant women and newborn babies a minute ago. But then just think about kids- not addicted kids, but kids whose parents have addictions. You don’t need me to tell you that the effects on child welfare are profound. That’s another case where the problem almost seems too big to tackle. We educate, of course, and we provide referrals to county child welfare resources. You do as much as you can do, but you always wish you could do more.
Jesse Cann: A problem like this must be approached from many angles. Susan Florman is the owner of Florman Drug, Riverbend City’s largest privately held chain of pharmacies, and she has some ideas about how her family business can help.
Susan Florman: Watching this slow-motion car crash for the past decade has been an ongoing heartbreak for me and my family. Being in the pharmacy business, this is very, very real for us, and always has been. We’ve seen the number of opioid prescriptions climb and climb; we’re here to help people, but I have this terrible feeling that we’re often enabling the first stage of a very bad process. There was this repeating pattern we kept seeing. There’d be a person with some kind of medical problem that left them in pain. They’d go to the doctor. For pain management, the doctor would prescribe OxyContin or something like that. Medical problem goes away, but the patient’s desire for OxyContin or something like it doesn’t go anywhere. So, people go from the doctor’s office to street drugs.
I’ve been talking to other members of the leadership team at Florman Drug, and we have a lot of ideas about ways we can help. For one thing, we have pretty good purchasing power with the pharmaceutical companies; I think we could put that to work getting Naloxone at a reduced price. I’d like to look into some sort of agreement there to provide it for the police and ambulance crews at cost. We always need to keep an eye on our bottom line, of course… We can’t help anybody if we go out of business. But we see data over and over saying that ready access to Naloxone for all responders makes a huge difference for mortality rates. And anything we can do to move that needle – pardon my expression – is huge.
There’s other, more systemic, stuff we’d like to consider. For instance: we have very good records about prescriptions that come through our stores… maybe we could set up a system to watch that data for unusual use or activities. There’d need to be a balance with privacy concerns. It’s not that we can – or would want to – set up some kind of automated tripwire system where law enforcement gets automatically notified if strange patterns pop up. But we can make sure that we have our information well-sorted and in good order to be ready for requests; and we can be in touch with health care organizations if we see particular physicians prescribing unusual amounts of opioids.
Or we could reach out to physicians and try to provide some education about best practices for prescriptions. Physicians are pretty smart and informed, of course, but there’s always more that people could learn. I also think there might be some good we could do – maybe as part of a partnership – setting up medicine collection events or ongoing programs so people could dispose of old, expired drugs. We have Florman locations in lots of different neighborhoods; we’re a trusted part of lots of smaller communities within the city. I’d love to capitalize on that trust and use it to do some good. Coming at it from another angle, we’re changing the way we physically handle opioids in our stores. We’re changing our purchasing patterns from distributors to move towards smaller, more frequent orders, so that the amount of supply in stock at any given store is much smaller. This way, if someone breaks in to steal OxyContin or Fentanyl or whatever, there’s less of it for them to take and distribute. This is a big deal! Fentanyl is *deadly* and it’s about as easy to buy on the streets right now as marijuana.
I know that none of these initiatives are going to single-handedly solve the crisis. But I think Florman Drug has a lot to offer Riverbend City in this crisis and I am anxious to help.
End of Broadcast
Jesse Cann: These three perspectives barely begin to scratch the surface, of course, but they represent a first step in understanding the depth of Riverbend City’s opioid crisis. And, maybe more importantly, in the range of options available to the city and the community at large for what our next steps should be.
Join us in the months ahead as Eye on Riverbend continues to follow the crisis and tell the stories of those affected. For KQMS, this is Jesse Cann.
You’ve just heard an overview of different programmatic approaches being employed or considered to combat the opioid crisis in Riverbend City. What considerations and resources factored into the government’s response to the problem?
The government’s response was to tackle and save lives by incorporating Naloxone kits in every police car and using the naloxone to prevent overdosing death.
What constraints did the nonprofit agency face in addressing this community problem?
The constraints were not having enough counselors, and not enough space, only being able to provide referrals.
How were the considerations of the business sector different from those of the nonprofit and government sector responses?
The business sector would be able to provide assistance with getting the Naloxone kits at a cost without hurting the owner business but also helping the community get a handle on the crisis. The government is looking at the situation the same as the business what would be the cost but getting a handle on the drug crisis in the community to make the community safe again.
Directions for unit 7 paper is as follows:
Program Development for a Government Agency
As a human services leader, you are aware, through direct or indirect work, of a government agency’s unique context of practice. Developing a program within a government agency presents its unique challenges and resources.
This paper will give you the opportunity to practice developing a program within a government agency. This program should address the social problem and unmet community needs you identified in the Unit 5 assignment. Utilizing your needs assessment information, you will provide a rationale for the need for this community program and describe how it will meet this need.
Since good program design comes with strong program evaluation, you will also determine an appropriate program evaluation strategy for your program. The government program that you, as a civil servant, designed must address issues of diversity and inclusion and maintain ethical standards. To further validate and support your proposal, you will use reputable sources.
Design a program within a government agency to address your previously identified community need. Write a 3–5-page proposal to implement the program in the government agency. To complete this assignment successfully, be sure to address the following:
• Describe key components of the community needs assessment that supports the need for the new program. How will the new program address this need?
• Describe the goals of the program and the activities that will be implemented to meet the goals.
• Assess an appropriate program evaluation type for this program.
• Explain the type of program evaluation that you would conduct to determine program outcomes.
• Discuss ethical considerations in developing and implementing this government program.
• Articulate how the program will integrate accessible and culturally sensitive approaches to address issues of diversity and inclusion.
Support your proposal with the required course readings and other credible sources.
To complete this assignment successfully, your paper will need to meet the following specifications:
• Page length: Write a 3–5-page paper.
• Communication: Use professional academic writing and apply current APA format and style for citations and references.
• Resources: Support your work with a minimum of 10 reputable sources, including required readings and other scholarly or professional sources such as peer-reviewed journals.
• Font and size: Times New Roman, 12 points.
Refer to the Program Development for a Government Agency Scoring Guide to ensure that you meet the grading criteria for this assignment.
• Program Development for a Government Agency Scoring Guide.
• How Do I Find Peer-Reviewed Articles?.
• HMSV5314: Program Development and Evaluation in Human Services Library Guide.
• Evidence and APA.
Program Development for a Government
Most programs regarding human services are under growing pressure to portray their services are efficient. Additionally, many youths heavily depend on these services for guidance and support and more mentorship programs are required in communities across the world. Also, another reason for this program is that there has been an increasing rate of broken families and many children are affected throughout their childhood, teenage development and into their adulthood. Mentoring the youth is often viewed as a combination of care and management of both young individuals and adults who are at risk of social or academic failure (Smith, 2015). Thus, more mentors are needed to give assistance and assurance for this vulnerable people.
The mentoring program’s chief aim is to support the growth of those who will be mentored in various areas. Besides, it will serve as a useful successful tool for planning to make sure that all the program contains the correct number and type of diverse leaders that will make the mentorship process fruitful. Also, a governing body will define clear guidelines, goals, requirements and responsibilities for the roll out of the whole program. All of them must be compliant with various policies set out by the directory board.
A recruitment process will be very important. Selection of appropriate mentees and mentors will be done by deliberating on all expected results and goals of the entire program with them in a realistic manner (Elements of Effective Practice for Mentoring, n.d.). Additionally, the program ought to target appropriate mentors and mentees. Also, it must put them in a precise place which will achieve desired results whereas maintaining a fruitful program.
Selection Of Prospective Mentees and Mentors
A background check must be done to ensure their quality and relevance to the program. The check will help the recruiter know the level of commitment, competence and other personal qualities which can translate to successful mentorship. It is equally vital that the screened mentees must be legally eligible to avoid future conflicts from the program.
Mentees Should Have Sufficient Training
All prospective mentees, mentors, legal guardians and parents of the mentees should be trained effectively. Make sure that they acquire necessary attitude, knowledge and skills required to create an efficient mentorship relationship in the interactions. Appropriate language and tools must be used. Besides, the program shall utilize training to assess the new mentors’ proficiencies and capabilities. It will also create early problem-solving tactics to solve issues which can crop up. All the mentees shall be trained on reasons that make the mentoring exercise beneficial and any necessary social skills that are needed to navigate through their lives.
Matching the Mentor and Mentee
In any organization, the mentors are often seen as the leading figures for all other employees or mentees. They are leading figures because they portray good behavior, values and essential skills within the organization or company (Poulsen, 2013). Similarly, building relationships is critical to having an effective mentorship program between the mentees and their mentors. Hence, matching the correct mentor to his or her mentee will assist the mentee to successfully complete the program. Thus, by recruiting mentees and mentors and improving their motivation in participating in a mentorship program will eventually help the organization realize its goals and objectives.
A proper support and monitoring system must be installed. Also, track the mentoring partnerships and their achievements and safety measures. Furthermore, help create ties by giving guidance, and solving problems. Extra rewarding is mentoring partnerships which are led and encouraged by one program supervisor and in the end, it can yield positive results for the youths. Additionally, this program intends to evaluate different ways in which youths are at risk. The first plan is to make sure that summative assessments are done which measure the whole program’s results. Therefore, because this is a public program, it must show that there is maximum accountability and transparency (Sylvia, 2012).
Notably, there are several ways that can be used in data collection through surveys. For instance, stakeholder surveys whereby the faculty of the program identifies that the communities and groups involved and have been affected by the activities of the program (Sylvia, 2012). Current mentees’ survey is to be utilized and all the mentees will be requested to assess a variety of factors especially the quality of service received from their mentors. The best source of feedback on faculty services and mentor involvement is the mentees themselves (Sylvia, 2012).
The way to deal with inclusion and diversity is to make sure that all involved individuals involved with the program are culturally capable and well trained in cultural awareness. Overseers ought to realize that moving their program towards cultural ability needs a personal dedication and substantial involvement from all the staff (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 2015). Moreover, the shareholders who embody the program must include different ethnic backgrounds and ethnicities and show no bias towards all mentors. It ought to be noted that standard seven states that human service specialists make sure that their prejudices or values are not forced upon their customers (Burke, n.d.). Observing this standard is important to making sure mentoring is inclusive and different (Poulsen, 2013). Furthermore, a concerted procedure of open dialog focused on accomplishing organizational as well as personal change through a common suspension of judgment and understanding in a mutual learning partnership where diversity is perceived as central to development, learning, and growth, otherwise known as diversity mentoring
There are various ethical things to consider, especially when creating a mentoring program. Understanding the type of relationship between the mentee and the mentor in this circumstance is very critical in order to identify signs of tension. According to Johnson (n.d), there are levels of tension rampant when it comes to the mentee and the mentor’s relationship, impacting ethics. Moreover, they are the level of formality in the relationship, support versus assessment, the competence of the mentor, and confidentiality. Therefore, in this situation, the mentoring program staff are expected to observe the standard dive of the Ethical Standards of Human Services Professionals. This standard shows that numerous relationships might upsurge the risk of harm to clients or mistreatment of clients, hence impairing their professional reasoning. Human service professionals ought to consider if the professional relationship should be averted or restricted when it is not reasonable to avoid dual relationships (Burke, n.d.).
When developing and employing a mentoring program, there are ethical factors to take into account. Beneficence is an important principle that encourages the best practices in humans (Johnson, n.d.). Nonmaleficence states prevent damage to mentees by preventing neglect, infringement of boundaries, negligence, and misuse. Further, another principle focuses on autonomy. This is the capability to enhance maturity and independence among individuals being mentored (Johnson, n.d.). Respecting boundaries is the most resonating and observed principle. According to Johnson (n.d.), possible damaging numerous roles with the mentees should be avoided by discussing corresponding roles in order to reduce the risk of negative results or exploitation. All individuals in the government’s programs providing service delivery have ethical guidelines and principles. According to the National Conference of State Legislature (2017), public servants, legislators, and advocates have a responsibility to show supreme ethical standards as well as to conduct.
Mentoring can lead to numerous benefits for the people being mentored and colleges; however, it can also be damaging if there is no official mentoring program and suitable structure requirements (Riebenbauer, 2017). Moreover, having a good plan is important to get the suitable structure for situations placed upon growing an official mentoring program for a government agency. Furthermore, regarding being ethically thorough, identifying ethical drawbacks is also important to the program’s efficiency. Also, although mentoring programs remain mainly aim at learning for the individual being mentored. Developing a mentoring program has numerous learning possibilities for organizations, mentors, and the community (Poulsen, 2013).
Burke, A. (n.d.). Ethical Standards for HS Professionals. Retrieved from https://www.nationalhumanservices.org/ethical-standards-for-hs-professionals
Elements of Effective Practice for Mentoring. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.mentoring.org/
Johnson, W. B. (n.d.). Ethical Issues in Mentoring Relationships. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/
National Conference of State Legislatures. (2017, September 21). Overview Center for Ethics in Government. Retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/research/ethics/ehtics-overview.aspx
O’Connor, M. K., & Netting, F. E. (2009). Organization practice: A guide to understanding human service organizations (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Poulsen, K. M. (2013). Mentoring programmes: Learning opportunities for mentees, for mentors, for organisations and for society. Industrial and Commercial Training, 45(5), 255-263. doi:http://dx.doi.org.library.capella.edu/10.1108/ICT-03-2013-0016
Riebenbauer, E., Dreisiebner, G., & Stock, M. (2017). Providing feedback, orientation and opportunities for reflection as key elements for successful mentoring programs: Reviewing a program for future business education teachers. Global Education Review, 4(4), 54-69.
Smith, C. A., Newman-Thomas, C., & Stormont, M. (2015). Long-term mentors’ perceptions of building mentoring relationships with at-risk youth. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 23(3), 248. doi:10.1080/13611267.2015.1073566
Sylvia, R.D. & Sylvia, K.M. (2012). Program Planning and Evaluation for the Public Manager, 4th edition. Long Grove, Illinois: Waveland Press, Inc
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2015). Improving cultural competence: a treatment improvement protocol. Rockville, MD.