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Posted: August 1st, 2022
Task: Write a research paper using evidence to support a thesis that addresses your research question examining a current issue or event in the news from the perspective of your field of study ( Computer Science). The audience is people who are generally educated but do not have extensive knowledge of your field or topic.
Length: At least 2000 words
Sources: Minimum of 6. At least 3 of these must be from scholarly journals, and all sources should be selected based on reliability, currency, and level of information/analysis. The UMUC library will be very useful in helping you find appropriate sources. You can, but do not have to, include all of the sources from your annotated bibliography.
Due date and revision: The first draft of the research paper is due by the end of Week 5. Submit your draft as an attachment (Microsoft Word is preferred) to this assignment folder. This should be as complete a draft as possible, in order to receive the most helpful feedback. In working on your draft, you may want to look at the rubric that will ultimately be used to grade your final paper. You can see it when viewing these instructions through the Assignments area of the classroom.
This paper is the culmination of your research project, in which you are examining a current issue or event in the news from the perspective of your field of study. Before drafting your paper, you will have chosen a topic, developed a research question, and identified several potential sources in an annotated bibliography. You should write on the same topic for this paper, unless your professor has asked you to make changes to your topic.
Organizing and supporting your paper
As you write your paper, be sure to include the following:
an engaging introductory paragraph that includes an effective and clear thesis statement
any definition of terms or background information that your reader is likely to need to understand your paper
focused body paragraphs that begin with topic sentences and use effective transitions. This is where you will support the thesis using arguments and evidence.
a concluding paragraph that reiterates the thesis, summarizes key points of the paper, and leaves the reader with the “So what?”
Research is a key element of this paper. Take care to support your claims with research throughout the paper. Include APA in-text citations whenever you use sources, whether through quote, paraphrase, or summary. An APA reference list at the end of the paper should list all of the sources cited in the text of the paper.
Point of view
This paper will be written in an academic style. Use third person point of view. Do not use “I” or “you.”
Formatting your assignment
Incorporate these elements of APA style:
Computer Science Application Issues in Organization/Business
Computer Science Application Issues in Organization/Business
Organizations and businesses find it hard to incorporate computer science in their operations due to challenges ranging from social, legal and ethical issues and thus there is a need to find a solution for the different issues with intention of aligning organizational operations. It is vital to note, that computer science aspects and functions have wide use in the operations of the businesses and organization but their full implementation is met with ethical, social and legal barriers. In this regard, computer science functions that include artificial intelligence and robotics, big data analytics, computer-assisted education or training, bioinformatics, and cybersecurity can be incorporated in the normal operations of organizations and businesses. However, businesses and organizations across the globe are not in a position to enjoy or experience full benefits and functions of computer science due to challenges of implementation. The challenges, in the form of legal, social and ethical aspects introduce conflicts in the implementation of the functions thus making it impossible for organizations and businesses to experience them. In this regard, there is a need to develop a solution in the form of approaches and methodologies and best practices of implementing aspects of computer science. Challenges experienced in the adoption of computer science in the businesses and organizations need to be addressed through effective solutions, approaches, and best practices to ensure that the full benefits of computer science aspects are realized.
Functions and operations of computer science in business
There is a great need to understand and analyze the functions and benefits that organizations and businesses experience from the incorporation of computer science. This approach makes it possible to realize the cost of ethical, legal and social aspects that act as a barrier to full implementation of aspects of computer science. First, cybersecurity is an aspect of computer science that ensures the protection of data, personnel, and assets of an organization (Granlund and Knutsson, 2013). The exposure of the organizational information leaves its organizations vulnerable and thus there is a need to protect it from cybercriminals that can use it at the expense of the businesses. Consequently, artificial intelligence and robotics is another aspect of computer science that are designed for different tasks. Artificial intelligence as a computer program is designed for undertaking tasks that require human intelligence while robotics takes a machine to complete complex tasks that would otherwise be done by human beings. In this regard, AI and robotic ensures that tasks and obligation in businesses and organization are effectively implemented without the input of humans. Furthermore, organizations and businesses adopt big data analytics to examine large and varied data sets or big data to uncover information such as customer preferences, market trends, unknown correlations, and hidden patterns. The information uncovered ensures that the organizations and businesses are in a position to make informed decisions for current and future aspects of the organizations. The big data analytics ensures that organizations can effectively evaluate, analyze and understand the data and information held to enhance proper decision making (Holcombe, Mike, and Florentin, 2012). Moreover, computer-assisted education is a vital aspect of computer science to ensure that training and education operations within the organization are conducted effectively. The computer-assisted education ensures that parties within organizations are trained on their roles and responsibility in the organization thus ensuring continuous growth in the organizations. Additionally, bioinformatics is incorporated in the organizational practices through software and programming development to create enormous datasets to analyze biological information for organizational use. Therefore, different aspects of computer science can be incorporated in the organizational operations thus enhancing effectiveness and efficiency but challenges and barriers make organizations not to experience the utmost benefits of computer science function and operations.
General challenges affecting computer science
There are general challenges affecting computer science arising from the scientist that introducing barriers in its incorporations organizational and business operations. The challenges negatively affect the results given or rather act as a barrier to the implementation or incorporation of computer science aspects in the business operations. First, the algorithmic bias experienced in the course of business operations negatively affects the operations and implementations of the computer science aspects. In this case, the algorithmic bias entails systemic and recurrent errors in the system that creates unfair results among the different players (Wang et al., 2010). In this regard, algorithmic bias results in privileging one arbitrary party over the other. The algorithmic bias arises because big data increases, the algorithm gains an ever-growing number of variables to be assessed when making decisions. The consideration of all variables in deciding without considering if the variable is significant in decision-making results in errors. Therefore, the algorithm error arising through adopting computer science in decision making misleads organizations and businesses to the point of failing.
The aspect of the internet of things introduced through computer science puts the security issue of organizations and businesses in question and this is a barrier to the implementation of computer science aspects. The internet of this means that various vital aspects of an organization/businesses such as data, assets, and personnel are networked so that they can diligently give the desired results. However, in the case that the network is compromised or is controlled by an unauthorized third party then the security of the organization is affected leaving the organization vulnerable to attacks (Wang et al., 2010). The networking of resources and assets makes the security situation worse because in the case of a security breach then the entire organization will be affected and this could lead to its downfall. Therefore, the organization trend with caution in the adoption of computer science due to the interconnection and networking thought the internet of things that can adversely affect the security of the entire organization.
The issue of quantum computing and encryption introduced through computer science has its share of challenges that pose security risks to information and resources of an organization. Quantum computing ensures that one can produce results or work at a very fast rate, using less energy and open great possibilities but this process is marred with inevitable downsides that result in challenges in the organization (Wang et al., 2010). On the other hand, encryption means that data and assets can be kept private and secure on the internet. However, codes and keys to accessing or unlocking the encryption can be created and developed in a million ways faster thus posing a great risk to the organization. Therefore, quantum computing and encryptions have their share of advantages in handling data and assets but have their weaknesses that discourage organizations/businesses from adopting them in their day to day operations.
Legal and ethical issues of computer science
The issue of legality and ethics is an issue of concern in every profession and the case of computer science legal and ethical issues affect its incorporation in organizational functions and operations. First, the issue of privacy is an issue of concern in the field of computer science. Businesses/organizations have confidential information and personal data to their personnel that needs to be safeguarded (Chameau, Ballhaus and Lin, 2014). The confidential information is vital as it can be a source of failure or success based on its use and handling. In a business environment, employers are actively monitoring the accounts of the employee to ensure they work in the interest of their organization. This fact brings out the issues of privacy that changing legal implications and further ethical considerations. Privacy concerns are slippery and an issue of concern as they erode a person’s rights. Therefore, the issue if privacy has legal and ethical considerations that have a significant impact on organization incorporation of computer science capability in their operations.
Organization adopting computer science in their operations has to deal with the issue of digital ownership that has ethical and legal complications. In this regard, digital mediums adopted in computer science enhance the free flow of information such that people and organizations can exchange content and ideas thus raising legal and ethical issues. The sharing and exposure of information raise the issue of digital ownership since content can be copy-pasted online making it impossible to control intellectual property (Chameau, Ballhaus and Lin, 2014). This fact has prompted the organization to consistently push legal notions such as copyrights. There is a conflict as organizations. Businesses push for the legal protection of their intellectual properties while there are activists who are consistently pushing for freedom of exchange of ideas and content in the digital realm. The conflict engenders the content and information held by organizations and businesses as it is a threat to their success. Therefore, the conflict on the digital ownership introduced through computer science raises legal and ethical concerns that limit organization adoption of computer science in its operations.
The issue of computer science in organizations/ businesses raises the issue of security liability that organizations have to contend with. The security systems overseeing digital networks are computerized for increased surveillance. The increase of security on the system and network is achieved through increased surveillance (Chameau, Ballhaus and Lin, 2014). It is vital to note that security systems are characterized by inherent risks and thus adopting them raises the issue of acceptable risks and freedoms to be forfeited. The IT professionals are thus required to exercise the balance of risks and freedom to develop an effective and ethical security system for their organizations. Therefore, the organizations and businesses are reluctant in accepting computer science aspects and operations for the risks involved in balancing security risks and freedoms for failure to maintain the balance would fail the organization.
Social issues in computer science
The adoption of computer science in organizations and businesses and resulted in implications in society. An issue of great concern in organizations and businesses adopting computer science is identity theft. The accesses of computers and the internet have significantly increased fraud such as identity theft. Identity theft entails the situation where personal or organizational details of institutions are harvested by third parties for malicious used such as carrying damaging activities or illicit transactions (Hazzan et al., 2015). Therefore, organizations that incorporate computer science in their operations have to deal with online fraud thus discouraging them from the adoption of computer science. Additionally, the adoption of computer science results in the breakdown of communication among different players within an organization thus affecting organizational productivity. Computer science automates different activities and makes people only communicate through the online platforms thus adversely affecting communication and the morale of employees. Therefore, organizations and businesses are reluctant to fully adopting computer science in its operations due to the breakdown of communication that reduces productivity among the workers.
Solutions to issues associated with computer science
It is clear that computer science adoption in organizations and businesses is characterized by ethical, legal, social and other general challenges and thus there is a need for solutions to ensure that computer sciences are fully incorporated and organizations can enjoy the benefits. First, the IT professionals need to be empowered to enable them in developing a solution for the different issues experienced in the course of incorporation of computer science in organizational operations (Gupta, Agrawal and Ymaguchi, 2016). The IT professionals need to be empowered through taking further studies, being engaged in computer science seminars and workshops to arm them with skills and knowledge to handle arising issues. Consequently, flexibility needs to be enhanced in computer science to ensure that changes can be easily and effectively adopted in the organization’s operations. The field of computer science and information technology is dynamic and thus organizations need to be flexible to enhance the adoption of changes in the interest of handling the arising issues. Furthermore, organizations adopting computer science in their operations need to streamline their documentation, policies, and guidelines with the aspects of computer science (Kumar, Raj, and Jelciana, 2018). This approach eliminates conflict in the incorporation and implementation of different aspects of computer science such that the existing and arising issues are effectively eliminated. Additionally, there is a need to expand communications among the different stakeholders involved in the implementation of computer science in different organizations. Expanding communication ensures that professionals in computer science can engage constructively with professionals and parties in other fields to the extent of streamlining operations in various disciplines thus effectively eliminating issues in the implementation of computer science. Therefore, computer sciences have a wide range of benefits in organizations and businesses and thus arising social, ethical, legal issues need to be effectively addressed to realize the full benefits of computer science.
The application of computer science in organizational/business operations has a wide of benefits and uses but the same is faced with ethical, social, legal and challenges thus inclining the IT professionals and other parties to develop an effective solution to enjoy the full benefits of computer science. The challenges, legal, ethical and social issues experienced in the course of implementing computer science applications derail of hinder the realization of full benefits of science such as cybersecurity, artificial intelligence and robotics, big data analytics, and computer-assisted education. The general challenges experienced in the course of incorporating computer science in organizational/business operations include algorithmic bias, internet of things security, quantum computing and encryption challenges. Consequently, the legal and ethical barriers to the implementation of computer science applications include privacy, digital ownership, and security liability issues. Furthermore, social issues include identity theft and breakdown of communication among different parties affecting organizational operations. Upon identifying the challenges and issues there is a need to get a solution for them. The challenges and issues are interrelated and thus general solutions such as empowering of IT professionals to handle issues, enhanced flexibility in application of computer science applications, streamlining and harmonization of documentation, policies, and guidelines to addresses the current and future issues and expanding the communication to enable all stakeholders to make their contribution regarding handling of issues. The solutions will ensure that challenges and issues are effectively eliminated in the interest of implementing computer science applications enjoying full benefits.
Chameau, J. L., Ballhaus, W. F., & Lin, H. (Eds.). (2014). Emerging and readily available technologies and national security: A framework for addressing ethical, legal, and societal issues. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Granlund, G. H., & Knutsson, H. (2013). Signal processing for computer vision. Springer Science & Business Media.
Gupta, B., Agrawal, D. P., & Yamaguchi, S. (Eds.). (2016). Handbook of research on modern cryptographic solutions for computer and cyber security. IGI global.
Hazzan, O., Lapidot, T., & Ragonis, N. (2015). Guide to teaching computer science: An activity-based approach. Springer.
Holcombe, M., & Ipate, F. (2012). Correct systems: building a business process solution. Springer Science & Business Media.
Kumar, P. R., Raj, P. H., & Jelciana, P. (2018). Exploring data security issues and solutions in cloud computing. Procedia Computer Science, 125, 691-697.
Wang, E. K., Ye, Y., Xu, X., Yiu, S. M., Hui, L. C. K., & Chow, K. P. (2010, December). Security issues and challenges for cyber physical system. In 2010 IEEE/ACM Int’l Conference on Green Computing and Communications & Int’l Conference on Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (pp. 733-738). IEEE.
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