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Posted: July 31st, 2022
This homework assignment explores the evolution of correctional policy in the United States. What is the current model and philosophy of corrections? (i.e. punitive, rehabilitative, restorative, etc.). Which do you think is more effective, etc.? Your minimum 700 word essay must be written in APA format
What is the current model and philosophy of corrections?
What is the current model and philosophy of corrections?
The models and philosophy of corrections have changed from time to time in the United States to achieve the goals and objectives of the criminal justice system. The correctional policies and philosophies entail the prevailing standards, best policies, and approaches to attain legitimate correctional outcomes. The legitimate outcome observing the due process, inmate rights, inmate welfare, sanitation, security, and safety. Equally important, different organizations in America have been involved in drafting, testing and recommending the right policies to be used in correctional facilities to enhance proper administration of correctional facilities. The organization and body tasked with policy matters include the American Correctional Association (ACA) Accreditation standards and National Commission on Correctional Health Care (NCCHC) accreditation standards. The organization is in continuous search for the best policies thus policies keep on changing from time to time to ensure that inmates are served correctly in the interest of reform. Updated correctional models and philosophies have been adopted and emphasized in handling offenders to ensure they reform and integrated back in the society thus achieving the goals and purpose of the criminal justice system.
Current Models and Philosophies used in corrections
Current models and philosophies have been used to ensure that justice is served to the offender while at the same time punishing or reforming the offenders in line with the law. The models and philosophies adopted in corrections ensure that society is safe and secure for everyone by ensuring that all citizens observe the law. First, there are the retribution philosophies that aim at punishing the criminals for their crimes against society. The criminals are deprived of their freedom to make them pay their debt for the crimes against society (Seiter, 2008). The punishments for crimes, in this case, are directly proportional to the extent of a crime. The extent of crime is supposed to fit the crime and the defendants are required to give up something such as their freedom for the offenses they committed. For instance, economic retribution is an order extended to a white-collar criminal for funds stolen from the employer and thus there are sent to prison for crimes as a punishment for the economic crimes. The retribution model is used to punish criminals and serve as an example to law-abiding people to avoid violating the law.
The model and philosophy of incapacitation are adopted by the corrections to remove criminals from society in the interest of good and law-abiding citizens. The incapacitation is effected to ensure that the general public is not harmed or affected by the actions of the few criminals in society (Seiter, 2008). The action to incapacitate an offender is taken to prevent them from committing crimes in the future since removing them from society or locking them up will lead to restraining them. The incapacitation model and philosophy by the correction is adopted to ensure that law and order are maintained by restraining serial criminals involved in the killing, rape, and burglary.
Deterrence is a model adopted by the correction to prevent offenders and general members of the society from getting involved in crime in the future. In this case, the actions taken by the correctional facilities provide a warning to people thinking about engaging in crimes and the possibility of going to prison and being punished discourage them from getting involved in criminal activities (Tewksbury and Mustaine, 2008). The punishments, in this case, are harsh and sufficient to deter the guilty from ever engaging in crime again as well as acting as a warning to others. Therefore, the deterrence philosophy and model instills fear of punishment to people such that they avoid violation of laws at all costs.
Rehabilitation is another correctional model and policy adopted to transform criminals to law-abiding citizens. The philosophy provides the convicts with educational platforms, counseling sessions, and teaching of job skills by different professionals to ensure that they reform from their past ways of life (Arts and Gelissen, 2010). The courses and training taught to the offenders transform them and enable them to lead a law-abiding life in the course of interacting with other members of the society. The training focuses on the reasons inclining the offenders in engaging in crime and thus they offer counter-strategies to reform the offenders. Therefore, the rehabilitation model transforms the offenders by offering them opportunities in life to be law-abiding citizens.
Finally, restoration is adopted as a philosophy in corrections to integrate the former offenders with the members of the society. The restoration philosophy takes the pat of reconciling offender with the society or the victims of their crimes (Alarid, 2016). The restoration model ensures that the society understands the circumstances that inclined the offenders to engage in crime as well as the rehabilitation process the offender has gone through. Therefore, the restoration process integrates former offenders in the society such that they can comfortably as law-abiding citizens.
In conclusion, the models and philosophies adopted by the correction aim at ensuring that law and order are maintained in society. In this regard, various philosophies adopted include deterrence, rehabilitation, restoration, retribution, incapacitation in the interest of upholding the rule of law. The philosophies aim at punishing, rehabilitating and restoring offenders such that they can lead a law-abiding life.
Alarid, L. F. (2016). Community-based corrections. Cengage Learning.
Arts, W. A., & Gelissen, J. (2010). Models of the welfare state. In The Oxford handbook of the welfare state.
Seiter, R. P. (2008). Corrections: an introduction. Pearson Prentice Hall.
Tewksbury, R., & Mustaine, E. E. (2008). Correctional orientations of prison staff. The Prison Journal, 88(2), 207-233.
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