Please read the instruction carefully and use one of the articles that you used it as a reference in the paper that you wrote (final2a.docx).
Read Chapter 6.2 “How to Critique an Academic Article” (p. 113-116). Choose one of the journal articles you found in your research for your paper and write a 2-page Article Review. Follow the structure and guidelines for writing the article review found in the Garrison reading and evaluate the thesis, methods, evidence, contribution, and recommendations of the article. Remember you are writing for an academic audience for this exercise.
The article Why Executive Legislative Conflict in the United States is Dwindling by Paul E. Peterson and Jay P. Greene takes a look into the dynamic relationship between the executive and the legislative department in the United States. The article identifies that the three branches were formulated to prevent a rise in partisan factions and identifies that base on the likelihood that parties are compelled to oppose one another as they compete for power all of them being equally vested with the power of governing and implementing and interpreting laws, the three branches of government were formulated to provide critical oversight to one another. But in the age of capitalism and increased interest in profit, the oversight roles assigned to the legislature and the executive are increasingly diminished and the two branches of government are becoming one or guided by one interest.
The authors present party affiliation as majorly to blame for the dwindling conflict between the two branches that are inherently to be opposed to one another in order to keep each other accountable. Peterson and Greene (2009) identifies that most members of the congress have clear partisan affiliations, and this cuts across the government structures. The analyst identify that members of the congress as well as the executive “assemble an initial set of supporters, win their party primary and mobilize partisans in general elections. Many receive money and logistic support from the national organization as well as from major interest groups identified with the party.” This makes them inherently likely to support their parties over the real roles that they are required to provide and that is provide a clear oversight of the other branches. This conversely makes the legislature less likely to oppose inaccurate executive decisions and actions, and limits the criticism to the opposition parties, also whom are structures in the same manner. Partisan conflict takes precedence over government braches functions, making the two government branches less practical.
Peterson and Greene make a very important argument in relation dwindling conflict between the executive and the legislature in relation to partisanship. They introduce another key institution, that propagates this dispensation; lobbyist and lobby groups. Lobbying is an important duty in any important bill or house matter of national importance and greater economic, social or cultural policy. A lobbyist is employed by interest Groups to come in and persuade the representatives to support their ideas before the bill or policy is subjected to a vote in the house. Ex-house members of Congress currently are only allowed to lobby on behalf of the interest groups two years after they have retired from individual congressional duties but they can retain partisan affiliation and they do perpetuate the role of partisanship within the two branches of government.
This system in my own view works to sustain partisanship since they still maintain networks, contacts and important favours within the Congress. These ex-house members could be used by interest groups to manipulate the opinion of their once-upon-a-time colleagues into voting for issues that favour larger independent companies and organizations on issues of national importance. There is the need for representatives to prioritize their constituent’s views before becoming supportive of any other agenda. Voting on important policies should first put the constituent’s wants and wishes ahead of his personal and significant third party needs. Also, retire house members should get a considerable long period break from participating in any type of lobbying. This break is important so as to rid any type of familiarity and create a level playing ground for all the lobbyist.
Peterson, Paul and Greene, Jay, n.d. Why ExecutiveLegislative Conflict in the United States is
Dwindling. British Journal of Political Science, 24, pp 33-55 doi:10.1017/S0007123400006773