Posted: July 26th, 2022

Biological, Social and Cultural Influences on Human Sexuality

Biological, Social and Cultural Influences on Human Sexuality
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Biological, Social and Cultural Influences on Human Sexuality
Introduction
Human sexuality has been a controversial topic for many years, raising several debates that are influenced by society’s social and cultural changes (Seidman, 2015). Additionally, the topic is not only about sexual experiences or individual sexual development, but more of the psychosexual aspect, sexual identities, and how sexuality is affected by biological, social, and cultural factors. Human sexuality has been a major topic which is emphasized in all aspects of life, including education, where human sexuality is part of sex education.
On the other hand, the changing nature of laws have promoted development of more research concerning human sexuality, especially due to the increasing rate of the LGBTQ community and advocacy of the media (Seidman, 2015). Several books and articles have been published concerning human sexuality, including the popular social construction of sexuality by Steve Seidman. The third edition has several features that highlight several aspects, such as intimacy, intimate solidarity, and sexual independence. The paper is a vivid discussion of human sexuality that explores the social, construction biological influences, and social influences on human sexuality and distinctions of the three aspects.
Social Constructionism and Influences
According to Steven Seidman, social construction is a sexuality theory; social deconstructionism has affected people’s perception of existentialism due to a lack of understanding concerning the naturalization of race and gender (Seidman, 2015). Seidman’s social construction of sexuality is based on whether race, gender is socially constructions other than natural, then can the same be referred to as sexuality. Seidman uses several concepts to understand the perspective, one, the ultimate life in American, sexual ethics in a time of uncertainties, theorizing sex, and the political and sociology of sex (Seidman, 2015). Through various sexuality theories, Seidman explains that the concept of sexual identity was first introduced in the early nineteenth century. The concept, however, was influenced by some sexologists, such as Havelock Ellis, and Karl Heinrich Ulrich, through concepts from psychological theories, such as the freuds theory of psycho sexuality.
On the other hand, theories such as the Marxism theories discuss how feminism as a sexual identity came to be, a product of different social and economic aspects (Seidman, 2015). On the other hand, Seidman believes that homosexuality is socially constructed due to the influence of identity politics, which advocated and prevented the criminalization of homosexuality as a way to fight discrimination. Seidman, however, view sexuality based on American society, where the LGBTQ has been politicized, such as use development of LGBTQ programs in the television, as well as representation of the LGBTQ in broadcast programs which tend to campaign for sexual identity, which is a politicized movement by several leaders (Seidman, 2015). On the other hand, Steven Seidman discusses some social forces that affect sexuality, where sexuality is determined by historical expectations of the American, social, and American cultures.
Social constructionism, however, is based on the perspective towards black women, sexism, the role of media in sexual development, and transformation of advocacy of homosexuality, as well as the role of gender and sexism in various disorders, such as autism, according to o Joanna M. Erikson. On the other hand, Seidman links and associates social constructionism with factors surrounding sexual morality, such as sex work, pornography, same-sex marriages, and sadomasochism, and how they influence human sexual identity (Seidman, 2015). Pornography and LGBTQ media representation and participation have been one of the causes of homosexuality and expansion of the LGBTQ, especially bisexuals and transgender people. . However, some social pressure plays a huge role in sexual identities, such as religion.
Cultural believes that sexuality is natural, where a man and a woman should be the only ones allowed to engage in sexual intimacy. Social factors play a significant role in sex, and sex work, especially regarding transgenderism, sex education, sexual abuse, reproduction health, birth control, and sexual orientation (Seidman, 2015). Sex working has been politicized and affected by social-economic factors. For instance, sex workers are protected from any form of discrimination and exploitation by the national association of social workers code of ethics.
On the other hand, various government agencies and social work organizations provide resources, such as lubricants and condoms, on protecting sex workers and promoting employment opportunities for sex workers as a model of human development (Seidman, 2015). However, human sexual realities, according to Seidon, are based on societal expectations, cultural and historical beliefs, such as gender roles and economic power, where, in the past, men were supposed to work. At the same time, women stay at home and take care of children. Due to the social influences and sexual revolution, sexual imbalances are becoming a big problem, where the rise of feminism and men misogynistic has risen, where today almost everything a man can do, including sexual activities, such as lesbianism. Human sexuality is based on historicism, ethnomethodological, materialism, and feminism.
Biological influences
Despite few research articles concerning biological factors towards human sexual identity, postnatal psychosocial play an essential role in human sexual identity. Additionally, the brain mechanism, sexual hormones, drugs, and various physical, sexual responses play an essential role in human sexual identity (Seidman, 2015). Biological factors have been reported to shape and influence human sexuality. Biological factors support the fact that human sexuality is natural and not socially constructed since sexuality is determined by gonads, chromosomes, the internal reproduction anatomy of a person, and hormones.
Naturally, the human sex is divided into female and male, where the chromosomes found in men are the XX chromosomes, while those in females are the XY chromosomes. Apart from the normal, XX, and XY chromosomes, other chromosomes occur, such as the XO, XXY, XY, XXX, and XX (Seidman, 2015). The chromosomes represent several syndromes, such as the XO is the turner syndrome, while the XXY is considered the de la Chapelle syndrome. Due to social expectations, natural forces, and religion, people born with syndromes are corrected through a surgical procedure. The procedure is conducted for the individuals to be accepted and generally operate in the societal settings that expect males and females to behave confidently.
On the other hand, some people lack enough hormones necessary to influence human behaviors, such as prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormones, oxytocin, and vasopressin. On the other hand, the essential hormones in males, and females, which progesterone and estrogen. The hormones, however, play a significant role in sexual motivation, wherein case the hormones are not present or low, a person may not be capable of engaging in sexual activities typically, for instance, low Sopressin hormone, which s is responsible for men arousal (Seidman, 2015). Also, the level of prenatal androgen promotes sexual differences and human behaviors; for instance, women who have high levels of androgen tend to be more masculine and less feminine. The condition is known as congenital adrenal hyperplasia(CAH); hence females with more androgen are different from other females in sexual behaviors, for instance, females interested in male activities, such as gaming, and use of boy toys, such as cars.
On the other hand, such women are associated with high levels of aggression and engage in conflicts more often than a typical female. However, females with CAH are mostly not heterosexuals and have fantasies with girls, sometimes with both men and ladies, hence becoming lesbians or bisexuals. The presence of a common gene, such as the SRY, gives rise to CAH females, which might be expected in a family. On the other hand, males with a low androgen have a condition known as idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). However, the level of androgen affects human sexuality over a child’s developmental stages.
Dimorphic development is a process that differentiates a man and a female, hence determining the number of dimorphic behaviors, such as gender identity, gender-role behaviors, and sexual object choice. However, behavior sex may begin immediately after birth due to the prenatal hormones during development, such as phenotype sex differences (Seidman, 2015). Sex differences, however, may be on physical appearance and a person’s genital make-up but also may be in the human Brian.
Various biologists have argued that people are born to potentially develop their gender identities, for instance, Sigmundson and Diamond. For instance, a person whose penis was mishandled in the past and forced to be a female may not change despite being aware of their sexual history because the person is genetically a male and full of male hormones, hence the level of masculinity cannot make the person change their identity to females. However, the high levels of androgen may cause toxic masculinity and excessive aggression, which is a problem with gender fluidity.
Most men who change to female identity go through a number f issues, such as inadequate male genitals (Seidman, 2015). On the other hand, gender identity is based on social factors, such as interest in babies, childhood play behavior, personality, and aggression. Also, sex differences and identity have been influenced by the frequency of inviting hospitals and the use of certain medications, although the theory has not yet been proven (Seidman, 2015). On the other hand, the types of mental health and substance abuse have been proven to show the gender of a person and the type of drugs used. Human sexuality has also been linked to cognitive function, such as intelligence, which has created debates over the years concerning intellectual differences better males and females. The different cognitive abilities between men, and women, are known as the “sexually dimorphic behaviors.
Cultural Influences
Culture influences individual attitudes towards human sexuality, which has been linked to historical beliefs, and conservatism. Religion is one of the cultures that has been embraced and used to determine sexuality through evaluating sexual morality. People from different religious demonstrations have a different perspective on sexuality; for instance, the catholic abolishes and does not support sexual practices such as masturbation, premarital and extramarital sex, abortion, and homosexuality been embraced in society due to social constructionist today. According to social construction-ism, sexuality is more than just about procreation but based on anthropologists’ theories (Seidman, 2015). According to anthropologists, culture means societal beliefs, such as social beliefs and trends, such as fashion, language that may influence a person. Culture, however, is interrelated with other aspects, such as biology. According to societal cultures religion, women are expected to procreate, be married to one wife, apart from the polygamous nature of Islam religion.
On the other hand, sexual relationships with family members, such as nuclear, family are considered taboo, which is not allowed in most cultures across the world. Incest, adultery is considered an abomination especially, especially according to Christian values. Although social constructionist has affected cultural identity, where today people engage in sexual activities for leisure, avoid commitment, and the rise of sex workers who engage in sexual activities to earn a living (Seidman, 2015). Human sexual behavior has led to super-naturalism, and cosmology, which is most practiced in Asian communities. For instance, attachment of human sexuality to movies, such as the Kamasutra, has been reported to affect human sexuality, leading to the transformation of most people to bisexuals and engagement in masturbation and other fetish sexual activities.
The current human sexuality has been considered as a taboo and pollution to the historical cultures that are expected by the society (Seidman, 2015). For instance, men and women are considered as powerful and supernatural when it comes to procreation. Virginity is also embraced by cultures, wherein in various marriages, girls are made to go through virginity testing, which has been embraced to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. Homosexuality has been considered pollution and taboo, which goes contrary to the cultures and norms of the society (Seidman, 2015). Pornography and nudity are considered a pollution of morals because human genitals should be fully covered.
On the other hand, some cultures believe in sexual symbolism, where various items are used t symbolize male or female genitals. Identified and explained biological influences on human sexuality. Various hand symbols have also been used in several countries as a symbol of sexuality, such as the Middle-east and Europe, for instance, a pickled finger that is elongated. And the space between eh first two fingers represents the vulva (Seidman, 2015). Homosexuality, however, is condemned culturally by Christians and most communities, wherein Leviticus 20-13 states that” is a man lies on another man as with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination. They shall be put to death. Their blood shall be on them” (Seidman, 2015). In North American, homosexuals, such as two men or women in a relationship, are considered “two spirits” in the late eighteenth century.
Distinctions
Human sexual identity in the twenty-first century is no longer a complex topic, primarily due to the high rate of civilization. Cultural and biological factors play a significant role in human sexual identities, where most of the time, the factors inter-relates, for instance social, and cultural factors (Seidman, 2015). According to Steven Seidman, human sexuality is based on sexual construction-ism, such as race and gender, through several theories and aspects that support the approach. Human sexuality is considered socially constructed because media and politics have played a part in advocating for the promotion of sexuality, and as well as several concepts that have been introduced, such as consent, sexual independence, and promotion of self-esteem which has made people feel confident in their sexually, since happiness has been the top priority. On the other hand, sexuality is has been influenced by some social factors that have individual experiences, such as childhood trauma, sexual abuse, and pressure from the media, such as magazines and social media platforms.
Human sexuality, however, is more socially and culturally influenced in the society and less affected by natural or biological; forces, such as hormones, cognitive functions, prenatal development, and various medicine, which have not yet been proved (Seidman, 2015). Despite few biological influences of human sexuality, social and cultural factors play a significant role, especially the social cultures, since cultures have been eroded by the evolution of sexual behaviors and technology. Today, society has become less judgemental based on cultural expectations; hence, remarkable influence, feminism, consent, and free-will spirit have taken over to provide people with the freedom to choose and live a happy life with no validation.

Reference
Seidman, S. (2015). The social construction of sexuality (ed.).

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