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Posted: July 7th, 2022
You are going to need the book called “Discourse on the Origin of Inequality” by Jean-Jacques-Rousseau. The book is the only source of text you need. Write a 3-4 page paper on one of the following topics. Papers should make and defend an argumentative thesis; analyze specific textual evidence for support and interpretation (through quotations and paraphrases marked by in-text citation; papers lacking such citations will be returned to be re-written); and evaluate the arguments considered in their conclusion. Papers should have 1” margins, use Times New Roman 12 point font, and be double-spaced.
Choose one of the questions below to answer.
Question One“[E]very Man has a Property in his own Person. This no Body has any Right to but himself. The Labour of his Body, and the Work of his Hands, we may say, are properly his.” (§27)Locke understands humans as fundamentally laboring creatures; indeed he defines political subjects in terms of their ability to labor and own property. What sort of interactions does labor promote? How does Locke’s conception of labor affect the nature of political interactions of the commonwealth? With what broader consequences?
Question Two “God, who hath given the World to Men in common, hath also given them reason to make use of it to the best advantage of Life, and convenience.” (§26)Locke repeatedly reminds men of their relationship to God; the Second Treatise is peppered with references to compacts, trusts, oaths, and promises. To what extent (and how) does religion affect Locke’s understanding of “compacts” and their ensuing obligations? With what political effects? In your conclusion, consider whether these references to religion can be safely ignored in modern readings of Locke.
Question Three“But if a long train of abuses, prevarications and artifices, all tending the same way, make the design visible to the people … it is not to be wondered, that they should then rouze themselves…” (§ 225)At the end of the Second Treatise, Locke defends subjects’ right to dissolve government under certain conditions. Under what conditions can government be dissolved, and with what limitations? What problems do you see as likely to emerge? Does Locke adequately anticipate these problems, why or why not? With what implications?
Locke’s Conception of Labor
Locke’s Conception of Labor
Labour promote political, economic, religious, and other forms of interactions, such as environmental interactions. Labour plays a huge role in promoting economic interaction by bringing the right people with different skills and experience together, hence promoting production. (Karimi, 2021). More production, however, leads to more sales, which meets the demand of society. Also, the need for skills and experience in the labour market promotes economic interaction through provision of job opportunities. People interact economically through production, sale, and purchase of goods and services.
Additionally, labour promotes political interaction and behaviour based on Locke’s property rights and natural rights. According to Locke, the government should respect individuals fruits of labour, such as private properties, since the owners worked for them (Karimi, 2021). However, labour promotes political interaction through policies and strategies that work towards respecting employees or individuals labour. Political interaction is based on the role of the government towards protecting individual privately owned properties and individual natural rights, which includes property, labour, and liberty.
On the other hand, labour promotes religious interactions, where people from different denominations and traditions collaborate in the labour market. Also, religion plays a major role in developing labour laws and policies, such as enhancing trust between labourers and the institution and reducing transaction costs based on the amount of work or energy consumed (Karimi, 2021). Religion help the poor or the fewer disadvantages from discrimination and mistreatment based on pay or working hours. According to John Locke’s concept of states, religion plays a vital role in ensuring natural laws are put forward, although religious roles can affect people’s work.
Labor and environmental movements collaborate especially in developing policies that protect both individuals and the environment. Labor promote environmental interactions despite several conflicts between environmentalist and labour unions, for instance, the conflict concerning the protection of the public environment. Labour promotes political, economic, religious and environmental conflict based on Locke’s concept of labour. For instance, according to natural law, individuals have the right to enjoy common properties, such as the environment. Still, man has no right to misuse the environment, such as to cause pollution. Despite the man being given land by God to toil, no one has the right to misuse the land, hence environmental laws that protect the environment. Environmental laws and agencies protect both common owned lands and private-owned lands from misuse, such as inappropriate land practices that may affect the value of the land. Despite man being given the right to toil and own the land, environmentalists and the government protect the land from harm.
John Locke’s labour theory, also known as the Lockean theory, has been used to protect private property since the property owner has the right to enjoy their labour, which is the work of their own hands. According to Locke, people can use labour to secure their resources, providing individuals with a moral obligation to claim their properties (Karimi, 2021). However, John Locke’s theory has been used to promote democracy by preventing leaders from taking properties belonging to citizens. The theory has been used to eliminate any leader who does not protect individual private properties based on the three of Locke’s natural rights.
The concept of labour by Locke affect political interactions of the commonwealth, a term that was used for the general good of the public. Based on Locke’s theory of labour, a commonwealth is a community of people with the same freedom and consent of properties held in a particular community meant for the public’s good (Karimi, 2021). Also, the concept of labour influences the commonwealth’s political interactions through promoting labour preservations and promoting the value of a particular property.
The conception of labour put forward by Lock tries to provide a balance between legislative supremacy and prerogative supremacy meant to promote democracy. The concept of labour promotes democracy and human rights in the political interaction of human rights, for instance, political interactions developed during labour and based on gender equality, good governance, protection of human rights, and promotion of democracy, prosperity, and peace as the three main aims of the commonwealth.
Additionally, Locke maintained and protected private property, addressed misuse of power and district, promoted self-preservation and ownership, and prevented minimal government through political theory (Karimi, 2021). The conception of labour influenced the commonwealth politically, especially the peace and security of the public. The conception of labour by Locke was to promote peace and tranquillity through the separation of the church and the state. Also, the conception influenced how the government use power and ensure that private properties are safe and free from any political interference.
Locke’s concept also developed the government’s moral obligation, hence promoting national order through, for instance, adhering to human laws. The concept of labour depends largely on the role of property and the concept of the state. Both concepts of Locke are hard to separate. According to the law of labour and property, man is given the power to work creates the difference between privately owned property and public or common property (Karimi, 2021). A commonly owned land requires no consent; hence the government should not deny access or make the land private. On the other hand, the government should not take privately owned land because the owner has marked the land through labour.
If the government intrudes and threatens the public or denies an individual right to labour on their own land, the public have the right to take back the powers (Karimi, 2021). The people, however, have the right to remove leaders who do not respect natural rights, property, and liberty from power by force if required.
Karimi, S. (2021). From Progressive Radicalism to Democratic Degeneration: The Trajectory of John Locke’s Political Theory. International Journal of Law and Public Policy, 3(1), 19-29.
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