Posted: June 28th, 2022

Terrorist Methods, Practices and Protocols

Following the instructions in your student course guide, write an 8 page paper (double spaced) on a topic relating to any of the objectives within the course. There is a rubric document in the course materials section if you need more guidance on elements of a well written paper. You will be graded on 1) Topic & Content, 2) Grammar & Spelling, 3) Flow of material, & 4) Proper citing & use of references.This is a research paper and requires in-text citations and proper use of quotation marks for all cited material. You should have at least 6, and preferably 8 to 10, references, which are cited within the text. It is not enough just to list sources in the bibliography. The paper must be between 2000 but no more than to 2500 words

Terrorist Methods, Practices and Protocols.
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Terrorist Methods, Practices and Protocols.
Recently, the France terror attack, Vienna’s terror attack, and the Mumbai terror attack have been an area of discussion worldwide. Terrorist methods, practices, and protocol has been changing for years according to the advancement in technology (Di Filippo, 2020). The changes in terrorist practices and protocols have led to a shift in policies and strategies development designed to counter terrorism. Today, terrorists use information technology, artificial intelligence, and robots in conducting terror attacks, to what is considered cyber terrorism. Researchers have tried to study the sources of terrorism and conducting reviews from already published articles concerning terrorism. Very few articles and journals have been written concerning terrorism methods and practices. The paper is a research work on terrorist methods, practices, and protocols.
Over the years, terrorism has evolved tremendously, where old terrorism and new terrorism are different based on methods, practices, and protocols. Human civilization and technology have led to new tactics and advancements in terrorist threats, implications, and hostage. Physical, technological, and psychological tactics in terrorism have evolved tremendously over the years (Gaibulloev, and Sandler, 2019). Terrorism is considered a tool used for political change; for instance, in the first century, French used terror in its operation to take over Rome’s authority by using traditional tactics, such as daggers, stabbing, and other simple tactics.
Modern terrorism took a course in the eighteenth century motivated by political ideologies and political leaders in suppressing opposition power (Di Filippo, 2020). Government motivated terrorism were displayed in a different part of the world, such as in Russia. According to the four primary waves of terrorism by Davis Rappaport, terrorism has evolved in terms of motivation and tactics. Rappaport’s four wovens include the anarchism wave between nineteenth-century towards the twentieth century, the anti-colonial sentiments in the mid-twentieth century, the left-wing Marxist religion-motivated wave, and lastly, the fifth wave, which is the technological wave. The five waves of terrorism display the motivating factor and the methods used, such as gas bombs, kidnapping, hijacking, and suicide bombing, especially in religious terrorism (Di Filippo, 2020). The AL Qaeda, the Hamas, and Hezbollah in the late ninetieth century used methods, and practices, such as military base bombing, suicide bombing, where most suicide bombers were women (Goerzig, 2019).
Over the years, terrorists have used three leading practices, kidnapping, barricade hostage attacks, and air and sea hijacking. Barricade hostage has been a terrorist method mostly in threatening the government by holding political leaders hostage, such as the president. The barricade method is used to prove war because the territories aim at creating a dilemma that would make the victim country fight for release (Di Filippo, 2020). Mostly, hostage barricade has been used to fund terrorist attacks, where the terrorist solicits money from the hosted individual, for instance, a negotiation between Spain and the Basque homeland in the nineteenth century. Over the years, the united states have negotiated with many terrorist attackers, especially for terrorists held hostage in the supermax prison, known as the Guantanamo Bay prison. Terrorism has changed, including the number of threats, where the quantity of attacks has been replaced with quality.
The current terrorist methods, practices, and protocols result from the highly increasing social-political aspect and technology, such as machines, guns, and bombs (Di Filippo, 2020). The new tactics involve the use of social media and virtual reality in recruitment and communication. The progressive nature of terrorists’ methods and protocols has made it challenging for negotiation than in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Schumann,et,al.,2019). Today, negotiation can occur through the internet, where deception, privacy, and security have been a significant issue limiting negotiation. Modern terrorism took a course from the late nineteenth century, as explained by various scholars, such as Benjamin.
Today, most terrorist attacks are motivated by religious ideologies, increased lethality of terror attacks, technological advancement, the innovation of new weapons, and the need to develop competent weapons. On the other hand, methods of funding terror attacks have increased, and the source of finances has increased, hence providing enough money to purchase high-end weapons and apply advanced tactics for conducting terrorism (Schumann,et,al.,2019). Compared to political, economic, and socially motivated terrorism in the past, today, terrorism uses violence targeting a specific group of people and countries based on religion. The evolution of terrorism tactics, practices, and protocols is based on the structure, types of attacks, size, organization, credit, state-barking, and targets. Terrorist groups use d=five hundred people to five thousand to conduct terrorism.
Today terrorism practices, and methods, include the use of weapons, such as machine guns, bombs, and guns used to conduct lethal violence resulting in massive destruction. Improvised explosive devices, suicide bombs, ambushes, harassments, target selection, media, and internet use are the primary methods, practices, and protocols used in conducting terrorism (Schumann,et,al.,2019). The use of improvised explosive devices is a popular method used by terrorists. The improvised explosive devices are made from artillery shells, ammonium nitrate, unexploded ordinances (UXO. The explosives are homemade used to conduct home attacks. Some terrorist groups use chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear attacks (CBRN) and vehicle born improvised explosive devices (VBIED). During the 9/11 attack, a VBIED was used in bombing the Beirut barracks. According to the A Qaida, explosive weapons are useful in conducting attacks (Goerzig, 2019). The weapon does not leave traces of evidence and strikes the targeted enemy with fright; hence no chance for response.
VBIED has been the most used compared to IEDs used to ambush and harass the targeted group. It is hard to spot the IED compared to VBIED. VBIED weapons are transferred in trucks, where the government and civilians can spot the vehicle hanging low (Schumann,et,al.,2019). The weapons are heavy and many, designed to conduct massive destruction in Afghanistan and Iraq. The improvised weapons are placed in designated positions around cities and towns and various routes. The next-generation weapons are known as Omar, which are hard to detect. The IED weapons are mad of ammonium nitrate in place of the artillery shells, making the devices expensive. In the past, terrorists used natural poison, such as curare, to decimate human physical bodies, while today, terrorists use chemicals.
Suicide bombing is a brutal method of conducting terror attacks, leading to massive loss of life, causalities, and destruction (Schumann,et,al.,2019). The LTTE conducted a terror attack in 1987 towards the Sir Lankan government using suicide bombing. Suicide bombing has been used in the past and modern life, for instance, attacks on communities in Pakistan and India in the twentieth century. Additionally, Guerrilla tactics have been used over the years, especially by the Chechen clans, in attacking Russia.
Media has been an essential tool for terrorists, especially in distributing religious and political propaganda (Hamm, and Spaaij, 2017). For instance, LTTE used the Tamil television network(TTV) and the international broadcasting channel(IBC). Various websites consist of videos with information about hostage and terrorist training used to distribute propaganda. Terrorists post propaganda to gain sponsors, especially the Iraq terrorist who post terror attacks in magazines, YouTube channels, and online jihad platforms. Another website includes the global Islamic media front with videos about Afghanistan attacks and other footage of terrorist activities (Hamm, and Spaaij, 2017). The websites and internet forums offer information in Arabic and English, for instance, the Al Fallujah.
The use of the internet has been the most used method today in conducting terrorist activities. The internet is used in activities such as propaganda, financing, incitement, recruitment, and communication. Websites, social media platforms, and chat groups to conduct recruitment practices (Hamm, and Spaaij, 2017). The internet is used to developing a relationship with people. Minors and minority groups are the primary targets in the recruitment process because most are easily lured through money. Minors are lured through cyber intrusions, such as malware attacks and phishing, when children watch cartoons and stories on phones or computers (ADIBE, NWAFOR, and AMAUCHEAZI, 2020). The false links and emails consist of deceiving information that attracts children into sex trafficking, drug dealing, and child pornography. Terrorists use the sites to recruit children and young adults into human trafficking activities, ending up becoming terrorists (Hamm, and Spaaij, 2017). Also, terrorists have customized children’s video games to lure children into terrorism and love for violence.
On the other hand, the internet is full of propaganda posted on social media meant to glorify terrorism, hence inciting people through anti-government propaganda. The information shared on the internet consist of messages formed against the government advocating for freedom of expression based on religion and politics (Hamm, and Spaaij, 2017). Terrorists share information that spread hate to recruit people and solicit important information from the public. Terrorists also use the internet in training and finance, where websites and online platforms, including videos and training manuals, can be easily accessed. Terrorists get finances used to purchase weapons and for training purposes (Schumann,et,al.,2019). Terrorists get finances through direct solicitation, charitable organization, e-commerce, and through the exploitation of online payment methods. Terrorists use various platforms to solicit money, for instance, chat groups, websites, mass mailing, and donating platforms. The groups use PayPal and Skype in receiving payments from people across the world.
Cyber terrorists have been a global issue in the twenty-first century (Schumann,et,al.,2019). Terrorists attack government organizations and large private originations to get money and sensitive information. Terrorist groups go through training on information technology, hence aware of different types of cyber-attacks. For instance, terrorists exploit money and information through stock fraud, card theft, identity theft, and intellectual property crimes. Credit card numbers are stolen hacking skills on various online payment platforms, such as e-gold (ADIBE, NWAFOR, and AMAUCHEAZI, 2020). Terrorists use money to buy weapons and other activities. Terrorists engage in legitimate businesses, such as developing charity organizations meant to recruit children and solicit money from the public. Some of the organizations used to fund terrorist activities include the international benevolence organization and the holy land foundation.
Legitimate businesses are also used to cover and promote terrorism behind the scenes. Terrorists, however, get critical information from the internet through the use of government websites and search engines. Terrorists use cyber-attacks as an effective tactic to disrupt the target through various threat techniques intentionally (ADIBE, NWAFOR, and AMAUCHEAZI, 2020). The cyber threats affect hardware, software, and network systems, such as illegal cloning, snooping hardware Trojan, and software design bugs. Terrorists use hack skills to disrupt an organization’s infrastructure and computer systems through viruses, unauthorized access, and malware attacks.
Cyber-attacks have been the new method used to conduct terrorism in the current fifth wave of technology. Terrorists are forced to learn how to use digital gadgets to fit into the current world of technology. An example of a terror attack is conducted in 2012 in Israel, which affected many business websites (Bawany, Shamsi, and Salah, 2017). Attackers have taken advantage of social media platforms, such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. People use social media websites for almost everything, such as posting pictures, for example, business purposes, and personal use. The information provided is an excellent target for terrorists, especially personal identity details, such as an address, birth, images, links, and location. Terrorists, however, use the information (Bawany, Shamsi, and Salah, 2017). Terrorists use psychology, and various sub-cultures developed to guide recruits and terrorists. Terrorist leaders use tactics to manipulate subjects, such as incentives and communication methods. Once recruited, terrorists are expected to maintain a low profile, secrecy, loyalty, and slang used in communication. The subculture unites terrorists into a family, to the extent of taking oaths.
Recently, terrorists use weaponized drones and unmanned drones to conduct terrorisms. The weaponized drones are used to carry weapons and explosives for targeted areas and in causing havoc. Drones are controlled to disrupt airline and in dropping grenades in the military base (Bawany, Shamsi, and Salah, 2017). For instance, the Islamic State in Syria used drones in carrying weapons, and Houthi rebels used drones for surveillance. Various countries have implemented armed drones for surveillance, which has made it difficult to distinguish between terrorist drones and military drones.
Machine learning and artificial intelligence have made it easy for terrorists in programing and controlling drones. Today, drones are cheaper than in the past; the availability, accessibility, flexibility, and reliability of drones have made terrorists use several drones to conduct various attacks (Schumann,et,al.,2019). According to research, drones’ use is increasing, where in the future, Al-Qaida and other terrorist groups may conduct attacks in crowded areas, such as in sports stadiums (Goerzig, 2019). On the other hand, terrorists use drones in taking videos and images during surveillance. The information collected is used in planning attacks, especially in designated areas. Also, the information can be used to learn about various locations, disruptors, and security states.
Various universal counter-terrorism legal instruments have been used to counter terrorism through cooperation from various security agencies (Schumann,et,al.,2019). The international civil organization, the international atomic energy agency, and the United States collaborate to detect and counter-terrorism practices. The international organizations hold universal convection that discusses the way forward n how to prevent and respond to terrorism. The international human rights laws have been an integral part of counter-terrorism efforts. The laws are designed to protect individuals from harassment and any torture regarding human rights.
The united nations global counter-terrorism policy mutually collaborate with international human rights to prevent terrorism. Also, regional and sub-regional policies and strategies have been developed, especially in dealing with the use of the internet and identifying suspicious threats, for instance, the council of Europe, model legislation, commonwealth laws of cybercrimes and computer-related crimes, and the international telecommunication union (Schumann,et,al.,2019). The United States counter-terrorism policies seek to ally with other organizations in the big fight. The organizations have implemented policies on the use of technology, response management, information technology, and artificial intelligence in countering terrorism.
Terrorism and cyber terrorism has been a global issue for many years. Terrorism is advancing in terms of causes, methods, practices, and protocols. Today terrorists use information technology compared to the past. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, terrorists used barricade hosting, kidnapping, simple weapons, and hijacking (Schumann,et,al.,2019). The methods called for negotiation and did not cause mass destruction compared to today. Human civilization and artificial intelligence have improvised the methods, practices, and protocols used in conducting terrorism. The type and nature of weapons used have improved since natural poison, knives, and physical war. Terrorists use improvised weapons, chemicals, and advanced weapons, such as machine guns, in conducting attacks.
On the other hand, the use of media, the internet, cyber-attacks, and drones has led to massive destruction and many people’s death. Terrorists use the methods to invade the targeted location in planning, recruiting, and training. Also, media and the internet have been used to communicate, solicit finances, and recruit through the dark web and terrorist websites. The progressive nature of terrorist tactics calls for progressive policies and methods for countering terrorism. For instance, the United States counter-terrorism should be ready technically by training the intelligence team and law enforcement to prevent and suspect terrorism.

References
ADIBE, E., NWAFOR, N., & AMAUCHEAZI, C. (2020). INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, TERRORISM FINANCING AND FINANCIAL INSTITUTION’S ROLE IN COMBATING TERRORISM. INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF LAW AND JURISPRUDENCE (IRLJ), 2(2).
Bawany, N. Z., Shamsi, J. A., & Salah, K. (2017). DDoS attack detection and mitigation using SDN: methods, practices, and solutions. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 42(2), 425-441.
Di Filippo, M. (2020). The definition (s) of terrorism in international law. In Research Handbook on International Law and Terrorism. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Gaibulloev, K., & Sandler, T. (2019). What we have learned about terrorism since 9/11. Journal of Economic Literature, 57(2), 275-328.
Goerzig, C. (2019). Terrorist learning in context–the case of Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. Critical Studies on Terrorism, 12(4), 629-648.
Hamm, M. S., & Spaaij, R. (2017). Media, popular culture and the lone wolf terrorist: The evolution of targeting, tactics and violent ideologies. In Routledge International Handbook of Visual Criminology (pp. 177-189). Routledge.
Schumann, S., van der Vegt, I., Gill, P., & Schuurman, B. (2019). Towards open and reproducible terrorism studies: Current trends and next steps. Perspectives on Terrorism, 13(5), 61-73.

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