Posted: June 28th, 2022

Pharmacology/ Potassium Sparing

Pharmacology
Please read the instructions before you begin this paper

Write a 3 pages paper on this assigned drug: Potassium Sparing (Diuretics/Cardiac). Use the information below to complete the paper. And after, use the information to make a brochure. And develop 2 multiple choice questions with answers and one select all that apply also with the answer.
Please remember the focus is on the classification not the disorder. The disorder is more to help you find the use of the classification for the project. You can mention what this drug/class does in treating that disorder and the use for the given disorder is where you want to stay. Focus on the drug classification that is assigned that are used for that disorder.
The project is on Potassium Sparing

Part 1 –

Using APA Format, present the information on the drug classification as appropriate as follows:
– Classification
– Drugs commonly found in this class
– Action (how it works)
– Uses – what it is used for
– Schedule/Category
– Side Effects/Adverse Effects
– Contraindications
– Interactions – food, drug etc.
– Lab test
– Nursing Education
– Client Education
– Overdose Treatment
– Outcome, desired
Be descriptive and explanatory. This is a chance for you to dive deeper into the topic that just a guideline for your brochure. This information should also be compiled and presented to your classmates as a brochure/handout for them to use as a study/reference guide.

4. Reference List in APA format. All resources used from the various papers for the presentation should be included in the group reference list as well. Every source must be a peer reviewed nursing journal. These may be accessed through the internet or library. If you do not know
how to access them, a visit to the library or the Writing Studio will resolve that issue.
The Writing Studio also has an APA format that you can download to a jump drive
that will help you with APA formatting issues.

** Please note because this is for a pharmacology class, ALL pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods must be incorporated into your disease process.

Pharmacology Teaching Group Presentation Rubric
Criteria
Risk factors for developing
Pathophysiology – if appropriate
Signs and symptoms – highlight the most common
What labs/diagnostic tests used? (For disorder but mostly drug monitoring etc.)
Side Effects/Adverse Reactions
Medical treatment(s) – pharmacological & nonpharmacological
One (1) nursing diagnosis – from NANDA list, highest priority diagnosis completes with goal and outcome criteria
Nursing interventions – as many as are appropriate to monitor this client and prevent complications
Written report was organized, concise, and with correct grammar
Written report was in correct APA formatting, including all in-text references
Typed reference list of at least three (3) reliable sources per student content – no internet sources unless you have access nursing journals, in APA formatting
1. Presenters were enthusiastic, interesting, and utilized a creative presentation style – engaged learners with appropriate tone, animation, use an Application/PowerPoint/Brochure, etc. Have Fun!
2. Develop an interactive class activity to promote critical thinking/review of highlights of the topic discussed.
3. Develop a quiz to hand out at the beginning of the class – each member is responsible for three (3) questions as discussed above.

Pharmacology/ Potassium Sparing
Date:
Name:
Institution:

Pharmacology/ Potassium Sparing
Classification
A diuretic is a drug that increases urine, where the medicines are also known as water tablets. Primarily, the medicines are used to increase the number of fluids passed from the body and at the same time prevent loss of potassium from the body. Diuretics are categorized as thiazide diuretics, and loop diuretics (Roush, et,al.,2016). For example, thiazide diuretics are used in treating conditionals such as edema caused by fluid imbalances and high blood pressure. On the other hand, lop diuretics are used to treat heart failure.
On the other hand, potassium-sparing diuretics are types of diuretics that are commonly used to provide electrolytes in the body. Potassium is vital for the human body, especially in promoting muscle activities and keeping the heart beating. The primary source of potassium is bananas (Roush, et,al.,2016).
– Drugs commonly found in this class
Potassium-sparing diuretics include medicines, such as spironolactone, Triamterene, Amiloride, and eplerenone.
– Action (how it works)
Potassium-sparing diuretics work by increasing the amount of potassium in the body. In-take of diuretics may make a person lose potassium through the passage of excess fluids from the body. However, potassium-sparing diuretics are taken to prevent the loss of potassium (Schroeder, et, al.,2020). Potassium sparing diuretics are not as strong as other types of diuretics, such as thiazide diuretics. Potassium-sparing diuretics assist in the retention of potassium in the kidney by blocking the passage where potassium goes through.

– Uses – what it is used for
The medicine is used to treat some diseases, such as heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and high blood pressure. For example, heart failure causes more fluids in the body due to the heart not pumping enough blood. The fluids, however, accumulate in body tissues causing the body to swell, especially the ankles, a condition known as edema (Crellin, et, al.,2017). On the other hand, the medicine assists in reducing a condition known as ascites, which is a condition where fluids accumulate in the abdominal cavity. The build-up mostly takes place due to cirrhosis of the liver or due to cancer. On the other hand, potassium-sparing diuretics treat high blood pressure, together with other medicines. The drug is used by pregnant women for serum electrolyte management (Bhattal, Keller, Ghim, and Ismail, 2016).
– Schedule/Category
A potassium-sparing diuretic is a category of drug that works by removing chlorides and sodium in the body in excess water.
Potassium-sparing diuretic is a medicine
Side Effects/Adverse Effects
Side effects are not so common unless when the medicine is taken in large amounts (Poon, et,al/,2019). Some side effects include skin rashes, headaches, tummy aches, muscle cramps, and feeling dizzy (Crellin, et, al.,2017). Patients with renal impairment are at a higher risk of hyperkalemia. The medicine can also cause testicular atrophy and menstrual disorder among women.
– Contraindications
The potassium-sparing diuretic causes hypersensitivity, primarily when used with other sulfonamides (Schroeder, et, al.,2020). Persons with severe kidney issues, Addison disease, or high levels of potassium in the blood. Also, the potassium-sparing diuretics cannot be taken together with other medicines, such as salt substitutes and other medicines high in potassium or ACE inhibitors. Medicines such as Losartan and Valsartan may lead to remarkably high amounts of potassium in the body.
– Interactions – food, drugs, etc.
A potassium-sparing diuretic cannot interact with certain types of medications and foods. For instance, the interaction of the drug with amiloride, triamterene, and spironolactone may cause hyperkalemia (Crellin, et, al.,2017). On the other hand, it is not advisable to use the drug with potassium supplements to avoid excessive potassium accumulation in the body. Other medications that odes did not work well include tacrolimus, aldosterone antagonists, and immunosuppression (Maideen, 2020).
– Lab test
Monitoring the level of diuretics in a person can be done through several laboratory tests. The tests, however, aim at assessing electrolyte imbalances (Crellin, et, al.,2017). In addition, assessing fluid status provides information that analyses an individual level of potassium through assessing body weight and peripheral edema. Other tests include cardiac rhythm and the nutritional status of a person.
– Nursing Education
Nursing education consists of information on how to use the drug and the need to monitor patients. Also, nurses emphasize the need to educate patients on how to use the drug, what to avoid, and when to seek medical attention.
– Client Education
Clients are advised to promote fluid balance to avoid excess loss of potassium (Roush, et,al.,2016). On the other hand, clients are trained on foods that increase potassium in the body, such as bananas, and intake of more fluids, which contain electrolytes, such as chloride and potassium(Crellin, et, al.,2017). Clients are also educated on the importance of taking potassium supplements in case of an underlying condition that leads to excessive loss of fluids from the body (Schroeder, et, al.,2020). Also, clients are taught about medicine intake and how to avoid complications, such as hyperkalemia.
– Overdose Treatment
Drugs can cause an overdose of potassium-sparing diuretic alongside other drugs, such as Angiotensin-converting enzymes(ACE) inhibitors which causes an increased potassium level in the body (Maideen, 2020). Overdose leads to a condition known as hyperkalemia, which causes a slow heart rate, muscle weakness, and fatigue. In case of an overdose, the level of potassium can be measured through an electrocardiogram (Crellin, et, al.,2017). Hyperkalemia can be treated through medication, such as insulin, albuterol, and calcium gluconate. Medication, such as Sodium polystyrene sulfonate, assist in lowering the level of potassium in the gut.
– Outcome, desired
Increased level of urine output, prevention of hyperkalemia, treatment of hyperaldosteronism, decreased blood pressure, and decreased edema.

References
Bhattal, G. K., Keller, A., Ghim, S., & Ismail, R. F. (2016). Use of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics for Serum Electrolyte Management in Pregnant Patients with Gitelman’s Syndrome. J Clin Nephrol Res, 3(2), 1033.
Crellin, E., Mansfield, K. E., Leyrat, C., Nitsch, D., Douglas, I. J., Root, A., … & Tomlinson, L. A. (2017). Therapy Code List-Potassium-sparing Diuretics.
Maideen, N. M. P. (2020). Pharmacologically Relevant Drug Interactions of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics. J Pathol Toxicol Res, 1(1), 1-4.
Maideen, N. M. P. (2020). Pharmacologically Relevant Drug Interactions of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics. J Pathol Toxicol Res, 1(1), 1-4.
Poon, A. C., Inkol, J. M., Luu, A. K., & Mutsaers, A. J. (2019). Effects of the potassium‐sparing diuretic amiloride on chemotherapy response in canine osteosarcoma cells. Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 33(2), 800-811.
Roush, G. C., Ernst, M. E., Kostis, J. B., Yeasmin, S., & Sica, D. A. (2016). Dose doubling, relative potency, and dose equivalence of potassium-sparing diuretics affecting blood pressure and serum potassium: systematic review and meta-analyses. Journal of hypertension, 34(1), 11-19.
Schroeder, E. B., Adams, J. L., Chonchol, M., Nichols, G. A., O’Connor, P. J., Powers, J. D., … & Steiner, J. F. (2020). Predictors of Hyperkalemia and Hypokalemia in Individuals with Diabetes: a Classification and Regression Tree Analysis. Journal of general internal medicine, 35(8), 2321-2328.

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