Posted: March 2nd, 2022

Perspective of Modern Human Trafficking and Slavery as a Form of Transnational Crime

Smuggling by Individuals and Groups: Perspective of Modern Human Trafficking and Slavery as a Form of Transnational Crime

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This research paper should be 3-5 pages in length, not including the reference section. It should be typed in 12 point font, double spaced, and should include use of at least five sources (articles, books, websites, etc.). Your paper should include a reference section that properly identifies the resource so the instructor can find it.

Smuggling by Individuals and Groups: Perspective of Modern Human Trafficking and Slavery as a Form of Transnational Crime
Trafficking as a transnational organized crime is a human rights violation affecting the lives of millions of people around the world. With the increase in globalization, diversification, and technology across the world, the movement of people and goods has become demystified and increasingly common. While globalization is considered a force for good, its various channels are increasingly utilized by alternative forces, in a negative outlined, to achieve economic growth and power for alternative organizations centered on criminal goals. Patrick (2012) identifies that globalization has facilitated an increase in international trade and in the same instance made it very difficult to regulate traders. This works to open new avenues to alternative darker forces. America is no different from other nations, as it is increasingly positioned in a corridor of economic opportunity. There manifests a greater agency to eradicate human trafficking as a form of transnational crime, that constitutes smuggling, as its impact remains to largely affect the community from the grassroots level, destabilizing families’ social, political, economic, and cultural frameworks.
Smuggling of people, weapons and drugs are on the rise across the globe, majorly enabled by corruption of governing authorities in regions across the world. Researchers outline that global organizations and governments place very limited focus and compulsion on governments (both developed and developing) to handle runway corruption in their political and economic sectors, as such transnational crime finds a way to be perpetuated unabated (Council on Foreign Relations, 2015). The passivity in addressing transnational crime has catapulted aspects such as smuggling to become billion dollar industries (Albanese, 2013). Council of Foreign Relations (2015) outlines that these kinds of crime now account for 2% of the world GDP and is on the rise, while costing the world 3.6% of its GDP. This is an effective amount to create massive destabilizing force across the globe.
UNODC (2010) outlines nine types of transnational crimes most of which constitute smuggling. They include people trafficking, people smuggling, cross-border drug trade in heroine, cocaine, illicit goods, stolen goods, medicine, contraband, movement of firearms, and wildlife crimes. Researchers outline that with globalization came immense deregulation of the financial systems across the world, resulting in more inclusion, limited bottleneck in cross border trade, increased volumes of goods and services transfer and more exploitative policies that majorly affected developing countries (NgorNgor, 2014). The scarcity in resources, jobs and opportunities in developing nations created conflict and increased despatration among people. Researchers corroborate these findings outlining that 85% of all conflict post WW2 have been in developing countries (Southall and O’Hare, 2002). Showing a general lack of governance paves way for violence, and providing markets for illicit goods, drugs, slaves and weapons.
Greater collaboration efforts, access to law enforcement, the inclusion of minorities, and access to funding of key departments has bee cited to be the key to stop the spread of human trafficking within the US. Opportunists, who survey the global economic environment utilize the failures in the multinational organizations to collaborate and capitalize on this weakness to promote their power and growth for a negative outcome. Patrick (2012) stipulates that to allow globalization to manifest, global financial systems in the same breath have faced rapid deregulations since the 1970s and this has worked to facilitate more parties’ inclusiveness into the global financial network. With greater deregulation of the global financial market more illegitimate actors have gained access to the global network and worked to create and sustain financed networks centered on illegitimate goals and actions, such as the illicit flow of goods, weapons, drugs, and more importantly trade of people.
Smuggling is a growing field of crime that has is a far much worse atrocities and impacts on societies. Zimmerman and Kiss (2017) state that “Human trafficking is a multidimensional human rights violation that centers on the act of exploitation.” This is done for the sole benefit of the perpetrators and at the direct harm of the victims. Cotter (2020) identifies human trafficking to be critically done against the victims’ will. Here the accused often subject the victims to dangerous situations for the purpose of economic benefit. The international nature of the crime makes it so difficult to identify the key actors let alone prosecute them before a court of law. Hartmann (2018) further identifies that globally, there are nearly 40 million people being smuggled across nations in any given year.
Its complexities and increased dynamism due to its global nature present the elements and actors of the crime as disconnected entities. A greater lack of coordination between global agencies and even local agencies within Canada to report the crime further exacerbate the crime to greater lengths (Public Safety Canada, 2018). In large urban centers particularly in areas with larger aborigine communities, the vice continues to persist. In the government of Canada report on human trafficking titled, National Strategy To Combat Human Trafficking 2019-2024, Ontario as one of the largest urban centers in the country with a large minority population was identified to be one of the largest centers for human trafficking accounting for more than half of the countries total victims (Public Safety Canada, 2019). Generally, the Canadian governments identify three key characteristics that continually make it hard to tackle the sources of human trafficking, while at the same time categorically defining the phenomenon, they include (Public Safety Canada, 2018):
1. Victim Exploitation: Most of the victims are forced into labor, often to the economic advantage of their captors rather than their own good.
2. Lack of Victim Consent: The majority of the victim comes from underprivileged background and their captors entice them with dreams of economic emancipation and utilize this to trap them in debts. They also actively threaten them and compel them to work for money taking away key human rights afforded to all humans under the United Nations Convention.
3. Transnationality of the victim: Most of the victims do not hail from the regions in which they are now forced to work. Taking the victim away from their space deprives them of the ability to find representation and works to perpetuate their captivity.
The victims are continually suppressed and inhibited from expressing themselves using a variety of elements key to their survival. Hartmann (2018) identifies that most of there are a great complexity surrounding human trafficking and social and economic vulnerabilities present key opportunities for traffickers. As such, what might not seem like a crime to the ordinary person is most likely a crime.
Essentially emphasizing how hard it is to know that the crime is being perpetuated. Social factors such as poverty, unemployment, displacement due to wars, political instabilities, death of family members, and economic collapse, lack of knowledge into the crime, and cultural practices are some of the factors that propagate human trafficking (Hartmann, 2018). For example, in some societies it is perfectly accurate and legal to use children in hard labor such as farming for the gain of their parents or guardians, in others it is perfectly legal to sell teens and pre-teen girls as wives and child-bearers to older persons or men. These factors critically make it hard to control human trafficking, especially when the person being trafficked has notability or knowledge to comprehend the act or fear for their families and their well being. Jacobson et al (2018) for example identifies increased FGM among foreign nationals such as Somalis, which is customary. Lawson (2020) identifies a total of 1% of teenage girls in North America are being married off pre-18 years old due to common laws and customary religious values that legitimize such unions. These are also people who are defined to need protection under the various laws.

Reference
Albanese, J. S. (2013). “Deciphering the Linkages Between Organized Crime and Transnational Crime”. Journal of International Affairs, Fall/Winter 2012, Vol. 66, No. 1, pages 1-16.
Cotter, A. (2020). Trafficking in persons in Canada, 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2021, from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2020001/article/00006-eng.htm
Council on Foreign Relations. (2015). The Global Regime for Transnational Crime. Retrieved 4 November 2021, from https://www.cfr.org/report/global-regime-transnational-crime
Hartmann, M. (2018). Causes & Effects of Human Trafficking. Retrieved 4 November 2021, from https://blog.theexodusroad.com/causes-effects-of-human-trafficking
Jacobson, D., Glazer,, ,., Blom,, K., Du Mont,, J., Jassal,, N., & Einstein, G. et al. (2018). The lived experience of female genital cutting (FGC) in Somali-Canadian women’s daily lives. doi: Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0206886
Lawson. (2020). Child marriage in Canada: A systematic review. PMCID. doi: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0229676
NgorNgor. (2014). Effective Methods To Combat Transnational Organized Crime In Criminal Justice Processes: The Nigerian Perspective. Retrieved 4 November 2021, from TOCTA Report https://www.unafei.or.jp/publications/pdf/RS_No58/No58_16PA_NgorNgor.pdf

Patrick. (2012). How Globalization Affects Transnational Crime. Retrieved 4 November 2021, from https://www.cfr.org/blog/how-globalization-affects-transnational-crime
Public Safety Canada. (2018). National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking. Retrieved 4 November 2021, from https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/ntnl-ctn-pln-cmbt/index-en.aspx
Public Safety Canada. (2019). National Strategy To Combat Human Trafficking 2019-2024. Retrieved 4 November 2021, from https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/2019-ntnl-strtgy-hmnn-trffc/index-en.aspx#a08
NgorNgor. (2014). Effective Methods To Combat Transnational Organized Crime In Criminal Justice Processes: The Nigerian Perspective. Retrieved 4 November 2021, from TOCTA Report https://www.unafei.or.jp/publications/pdf/RS_No58/No58_16PA_NgorNgor.pdf
Southall, D., & O’Hare, B. (2002). Empty arms: the effect of the arms trade on mothers and children. BMJ, 325(7378), 1457-1461. doi: 10.1136/bmj.325.7378.1457
UNODC. (2010). The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment. Retrieved 3 November 2021, from https://www.unodc.org/res/cld/bibliography/the-globalization-of-crime-a-transnational-organized-crime-threat-assessment_html/TOCTA_Report_2010_low_res.pdf

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