Posted: February 19th, 2022

Lab 1 – The Scientific Method essay

Revised: August 7, 2019 1

ENVR 1401 – BACKGROUND

Lab 1 – Scientific Method

Studying Aims:

1. Define the steps to the scientific methodology.

2. Determine testable observations.

three. Distinguish between dependent and unbiased variables.

four. Gather, manage, and current scientific information.

Overview

This exercise explores the idea and software of the scientific methodology. To tell apart true cause- impact

relationships from associations or perceptions, phenomena have to be investigated utilizing designed experiments

and cautious observations that may be repeated by others.

The scientific methodology is usually mentioned as a standardized, linear course of that features the next steps and entails particular expertise:

1. Make observations or collect information ➔ typically results in a query

2. Formulate a speculation which results in an related prediction

three. Design an applicable check/experiment to evaluate the speculation/prediction

four. Conduct check/experiment, document and analyze the outcomes (together with mathematical and statistical analysis)

5. Interpret the outcomes and draw conclusions ➔ settle for, revise, or reject the speculation

6. Reporting the outcomes (e.g., laboratory report, formal memorandum, peer reviewed article)

Revised: August 7, 2019 2

However, as proven within the move chart, the method isn’t linear. It’s cyclical as a result of good science stimulates

additional thought and mandates that concepts be challenged and additional examined to reveal that the outcomes will be repeated (iterative course of). A scientific speculation is an knowledgeable, testable, and predictive clarification

of a pure phenomenon, course of or occasion. If, upon testing, the scientific speculation fails the check, it have to be

rejected or could also be modified and topic to additional testing. Fashions are mathematical or conceptual

hypotheses that present helpful views, although typically restricted by oversimplification of the method they signify.

If, nevertheless, a scientific speculation continues to cross repeated exams and the predictions have been verified,

then it’s thought-about a corroborated speculation. A extremely corroborated speculation which has been repeatedly examined and is supported by vital dependable proof is taken into account a scientific truth or pure

regulation, such because the existence of gravity as a property of all matter.

A unifying and constant clarification of basic pure processes or phenomena that’s constructed of

corroborated hypotheses and scientific info is a scientific principle. Scientific theories, corresponding to quantum

mechanics, thermodynamics, plate tectonics, evolution, or relativity, are essentially the most dependable and complete type of human information. And, as we achieve extra information by way of the applying of the

scientific methodology, our understanding of the universe wherein we reside and our theories on the way it capabilities

and evolves should proceed to be refined.

Additional worth of the scientific methodology is derived from honing and making use of vital expertise to develop

scientific information:

◼ making, recording, and reporting unbiased measurements

◼ classifying information

◼ translating and analyzing info

◼ making use of deductive and inductive logic

◼ crucial, interpretive, and artistic considering

◼ figuring out and controlling variables

The scientific methodology established an strategy to an issue and enforces scientific thought that makes an attempt to

get rid of bias within the ensuing information and conclusions. Science depends upon empirical proof which is

observable and measurable by multiple researcher. However as people, we are likely to view the world and

options to issues inside our private framework. For instance, if a city alongside the river is repeatedly

flooded, then the structural engineer believes the issue might be solved by constructing a dam and the politician might imagine than any answer is just too costly or unpopular and could be detrimental to being re-elected. In

distinction, the pure useful resource supervisor might desire limiting city growth and re- establishing native

habitat. The propensity of people to understand the world from their perspective is nice cause to have a wholesome dose of skepticism — to continually query your beliefs, observations, and conclusions.

Scientific methodology has a protracted historical past that dates again over 1,000 years, with many cultures and

people contributing to its growth. Historical Egyptian papyri describe strategies of medical analysis and empiricism. Empirical proof present in nature permits us to explain and clarify pure processes and

pure legal guidelines. The first experimental scientific methodology was developed by Muslim scientists. Alhazen (Ibn al-

Haytham, 965-1039) is credited with introducing experimentation and quantification in his work on optics, amongst his vital contributions to astronomy, engineering, physics, drugs, and science normally. In

Europe the Renaissance resulted in renewed curiosity within the concepts and science developed in the course of the Greek and

Roman empires.

The logic and philosophical approaches of Aristotle and Socrates have been improved upon by Francis Bacon in

the early 1600s. Descartes formalized the guiding ideas for the scientific methodology, strengthening the hyperlink between science and arithmetic. Galileo additionally confirmed the significance of testing or experimenting to look

for the other of a consequence to doubtlessly disprove an thought. Within the late 1800s, Peirce outlined goal

strategies utilizing deduction and induction as complementary approaches, in addition to outlining the fundamental scheme for speculation and testing that we at present use.

Revised: August 7, 2019 three

Deduction and induction are sorts of argument or logical approaches. Deduction, in easiest phrases, is the

logical means of arriving at a conclusion based mostly on premises (e.g., info, statements, legal guidelines) which have been verified. Induction, in easiest phrases, is the logical means of arriving at a conclusion based mostly on premises

which can be assumed to be true; subsequently, some conclusions of inductive thought processes could also be false.

Deduction is mostly described as transferring from the extra basic to the extra particular. For instance, the Regulation of Gravity expresses the pressure that pulls objects to one another. In frequent phrases, it explains why

objects fall towards Earth or, within the setting, why water flows downhill. Based mostly on the Regulation of Gravity we

would deduce that weathered soil supplies would additionally transfer down slope. Induction is mostly described

as transferring from particular observations or particulars to a basic assertion. For instance, we start by making observations or measurements, detect patterns or regularities, and develop a basic conclusion. In

software, in case you contact a range ten occasions and every time you contact the range, you burn your hand. You

would possibly conclude that the range is at all times sizzling. However this conclusion might or will not be true.

The scientific methodology can by no means “completely show” or present “reality” to know. To paraphrase

Einstein, “No quantity of experimentation can ever show me proper; a single experiment can show me

unsuitable.” For that reason, and to beat the human bias for seeing what we wish to see, we have to think about that a trigger-impact relationship exists (speculation) AND think about that a perceived trigger-impact

relationship doesn’t exist (null speculation).

Step 1 – Make observations or collect information

Consciousness of our surroundings might result in posing a query. Such consciousness might end result from making

observations round us, gathering preliminary information that mirror environmental situations, or by researching

and studying revealed work of others. This strategy typically results in the popularity of a broad downside that warrants additional investigation. For instance, “Is our water reservoir clear and protected?” Exploring this query

by additional studying and analysis might enable refinement of the query. For instance, “Is chemical “A” in our

water provide reservoir?” The query will present a foundation for additional investigation.

Step 2 – Formulate a speculation which results in an related prediction

To formulate a speculation, it is very important focus the posed query and to outline a selected parameter to

be investigated with an anticipated end result. The prediction could also be 1) there might be a selected end result within the

experiment, 2) there might be a statistical distinction between the examined topic and a management, or three) there’ll

be no distinction between the examined topic and the management. Formulation of the speculation is crucial as a result of it can assist to outline and description the experiment by way of the precise parameters (unbiased and

dependent variables) which can be being assessed.

The speculation is an announcement of the probably end result of the experiment. Extra appropriately, the

speculation (designated by HA) must be seen as a prediction that may be examined, isn’t ambiguous, and is dichotomous (a “sure” or “no” assertion).

HA: Lower than 5 mg/l of chemical “A” within the reservoir water might be deadly to bluegill minnows.

However do not forget that the prediction may very well be misguided. Due to this fact, a null speculation (designated by H0) should even be developed:

H0: Lower than 5 mg/l of chemical “A” within the reservoir water won’t be deadly to bluegill minnows.

Vary of tolerance — In environmental science, we frequently examine the connection between organisms

and the abiotic (non-residing or bodily) traits of the setting, corresponding to temperature, moisture,

nutrient availability, and nutrient toxicity. Most organisms thrive beneath optimum environmental situations. There’s a small share of every species that may survive beneath much less-than-excellent situations regardless of being

physiologically burdened. Such organisms will extra readily adapt to altering environmental situations and

thus make sure the survival of the species. Sometimes called the Regulation of Tolerance, this relationship between inhabitants measurement and environmental situation is mirrored within the following determine. This curve may mirror

the connection between, for instance, numbers of predators and the prey inhabitants.

Revised: August 7, 2019 four

Idealized Vary of Tolerance Curve

Step three – Design an applicable check/experiment to evaluate the speculation/prediction

A nicely-designed experiment must have an unbiased variable and a dependent variable. The

unbiased variable is what the scientist manipulates within the experiment. The dependent variable

responds to the manipulation of the unbiased variable. Due to this fact, the dependent variable gives the information for the experiment. Stated one other manner, the unbiased variable causes a response that’s measured as

the dependent variable…. or…the unbiased variable could also be thought-about as an motion that ends in a

response (dependent variable). Contemplate, for instance, a hearth alarm in a constructing. It isn’t till the alarm

rings that folks will shortly evacuate the constructing. Due to this fact, it’s the ringing of the alarm that is the unbiased variable that causes the dependent response of individuals shortly evacuating the constructing.

Variables which can be held fixed are referred to as managed variables. For instance, if we wished to check the

results of various the extent of dissolved oxygen on the survival of fish, then we might preserve different

environmental components (corresponding to temperature, mild, availability of meals) fixed to make sure that they weren’t affecting whether or not the fish survived.

A nicely-designed experiment ought to distinguish between the therapy (the experimental situation) and

the management (reference for comparability). All variables are held fixed for the management. For the therapy,

solely the unbiased variable is modified to find out the ensuing end result (dependent variable). The management is a supply of reference and, since no variables are manipulated for the management, then no response or

change must be famous. If the management stays fixed, then adjustments that end result from the manipulation of

the unbiased variable for the therapy are attributed to the experimental issue.

If adjustments are famous within the management, then such adjustments are attributed to a number of confounding variables. The problem with confounding variables is that they don’t seem to be readily recognized earlier than or throughout

the research and infrequently resulting in misinterpreted or incorrect outcomes.

Step four – Conduct check/experiment, document and analyze the outcomes

The information could also be qualitative (a verbal description of noticed outcomes of the experiment) or quantitative (involving the gathering of numerical values that may be mathematically assessed or utilized

to a statistical mannequin). Commentary have to be thorough and neutral. However, be cautious to current your information

in a factual method. Your interpretations, opinions and conclusions are NOT a part of presenting and analyzing the outcomes – they correctly belong to Step 5.

Devices used to gather information must be correctly calibrated. Testing tools and strategies must be

constant all through the investigation. A number of exams must be carried out on every check parameter, and the

existence of outliers (uncommon values) must be famous. When outliers are noticed, the testing strategies

and tools must be checked fastidiously for malfunctions and recording errors. Lastly, all observations

Revised: August 7, 2019 5

have to be famous in everlasting written documentation in order that it may be evaluated later and by others.

Sources of Error – To evaluate validity of scientific work, sources of error must be recognized and evaluated. Widespread sources of error might end result from measurements, testing procedures and human error.

Precision is a measure of the scatter, dispersion, or capacity to duplicate the measurements. Low-precision (excessive-scatter) measurements are known as noisy information. Smaller common distinction between repeat

(replicate) measurements means increased precision. For instance, if a sheet of paper is measured a number of

occasions with a ruler, we’d get measurements corresponding to 10.9, 11.zero, 10.9, and 11.1 inches. If a micrometer is

used as an alternative, we’d get measurements corresponding to 10.97, 10.96, 10.98, and 10.97 inches. These estimates present random variation whatever the measuring machine, however the micrometer offers a extra exact

measurement than does the ruler. If the ruler or micrometer is poorly made, it could yield measurements

which can be persistently offset, or systematically biased, from the true lengths. Accuracy is the extent to which the measurements are a dependable estimate of the ‘true’ worth. Each random errors and systematic

biases scale back accuracy. To scale back errors of measurement, many measurements could also be obtained after which

averaged to try to reduce bias and obtain accuracy.

A consultant pattern is a small subset of the general inhabitants, exhibiting the identical traits as

that general inhabitants. Additionally it is a prerequisite to legitimate statistical induction, or quantitative generalization. Consultant sampling is crucial for profitable averaging of random errors and avoidance of

systematic errors, or bias. With random sampling, each specimen of the inhabitants ought to have an equal

likelihood of being included within the pattern. There are standardized strategies for conducting random sampling to acquire a consultant pattern. Generally, nevertheless, random sampling isn’t possible, and the

outcomes might subsequently not be according to the general inhabitants and be freed from bias.

Presenting and Analyzing Outcomes — Fashionable science virtually at all times employs a statistical evaluation to

interpret information. Reference the Lab 1 background for steerage on deciding on applicable graphic methodology and mathematical evaluation of the information. These interpretations are quantitative in nature and permit the scientist to

decide whether or not the experimental outcomes point out a constant pattern or situation.

Interpretations may be qualitative in nature. For example, a speculation predicted that there was fecal

coliform in a neighborhood stream and, after repeated testing, none was discovered. This may very well be qualitatively

interpreted that there’s an insignificant quantity of fecal coliform within the stream. This sort of qualitative interpretation leaves room for errors in judgment.

Step 5 – Interpret the outcomes and draw conclusions ➔ settle for, revise, or reject the speculation

When statistical analysis of experimental outcomes is carried out, there’ll both be a statistical distinction

between the examined topic and a management group (helps speculation HA) or there might be no distinction

between the examined topic and the management group (helps null speculation H0). Missing statistical

analysis requires that the mathematical evaluation and/or qualitative outcomes be interpreted to find out

whether or not the speculation is accepted, modified, or rejected.

For instance, the willpower of an insignificant quantity of fecal coliform in a stream may very well be interpreted because the water is protected to drink. However would you’re feeling protected ingesting the stream water?

• Speculation Accepted – If the speculation is accepted, the coed will write a proper report and

contribute this work to the present scientific literature. The report will make it potential for different scientists (on this case, different college students, or the trainer) to guage work for scientific soundness

and to repeat the experiment to confirm the outcomes. This course of is named peer assessment.

• Speculation Rejected – If the speculation is rejected, the coed will write a proper report and

contribute this work to the present scientific literature. Vital information will be gained from concepts that fail. This makes it potential for the unique researcher or different college students to research the

similar matter and to construct upon the rejected speculation from the previous investigation. Edison, for

instance, didn’t invent the sunshine bulb. Over a yr and a half, Edison considerably improved upon a

fifty-yr previous thought. In creating an electrical lighting system that contained all the weather essential to make the incandescent mild sensible, protected, and economical for house use, Edison discovered 10,000 methods

that may not work.

Revised: August 7, 2019 6

Step 6 – Reporting the outcomes

Outcomes of scientific analysis have to be shared to finish the cycle of the scientific methodology and stimulate

additional thought, enable testing of the strategies and outcomes, and make sure the alternative for potential growth from speculation to corroborated speculation to scientific principle or maybe even recognition

of a scientific truth or pure regulation. A number of frequent strategies of reporting are used:

◼ Formal memorandum

◼ Formal laboratory studies

◼ Peer reviewed scientific articles

Formal Memorandum

The customary reporting format for a lot of state and federal companies, in addition to in trade, is a proper

memorandum. An extended report format can be frequent. The formal memorandum follows the next

format. Make sure to point out the content material of every part of the memo through the use of the respective labels (i.e.,

Label sections as: Background, Investigation, Conclusions and Suggestions).

MEMORANDUM

To: (point out the title of the receiver – if an company, additionally embody formal title and company

title)

From: (point out your title)

Date: (date memorandum is being submitted)

Topic: (description of the content material of the memo, for instance: Evaluation of fecal coliform content material

of Turtle Creek, Dallas County, Texas)

Background: Concise paragraph (or extra if wanted) to stipulate:

◼ The place (reference map), when and why the research was carried out

◼ present basic background info on the research space

Investigation: Paragraphs factually outlining and presenting the next:

◼ what exams have been carried out

◼ summarize the outcomes and current in desk and or graphic type – NOTE: these must be labeled appropriately and referenced in your abstract

◼ uncertainties

Conclusions: Concise abstract of your interpretations and conclusions, together with whether or not there

is sufficient proof to behave.

Suggestion(s): Itemize and help your suggestions (for instance, what motion must be undertaken to reply to the scenario or what additional motion could also be

wanted to develop sufficient proof to help taking actions)

Attachment(s): An inventory of hooked up paperwork (e.g., figures, tables, graphs) which can be hooked up in

order on the finish of the memorandum – NOTE: all included figures, tables,

graphs or maps MUST be appropriately referenced and defined within the

doc.

Revised: August 7, 2019 7

Formal Laboratory Studies

Basic Feedback: Writing is likely one of the most necessary issues you’ll do within the laboratory. All formal

laboratory studies have to be typed and submitted in onerous copy. Good communication is crucial. Due to this fact, good grammar, right spelling and phrase selection, in addition to paragraph construction are vital. When you

have written your laboratory report, re-learn and edit it to develop a nicely-written doc. Make use of

the School Writing Lab that can assist you edit your written doc and enhance your writing expertise.

Every of the next sections must be included in your report. Every part ought to start with the title

of the part in ALL CAPS. You could assessment “Labwrite” as a useful resource that can assist you put together, manage, interpret and write a proper laboratory report < http://labwrite.ncsu.edu/ >

1. TITLE – Select a title that describes the speculation you’re testing. You could wish to use the unbiased variable and the dependent variable in your title (e.g., The Results of Ozone on

Ultraviolet Radiation).

2. INTRODUCTION – Determine the phenomenon you studied/examined and supply related background info (e.g., why are you doing this experiment, what preliminary observations or

questions led to this line of analysis and to your particular experiment, what’s the environmental

significance?) This dialogue will possible embody info from different

research/paperwork/sources which have to be correctly referenced and cited.

three. HYPOTHESIS – State the speculation that your experiment was designed to check; the speculation must be particular, presenting the unbiased variable and the anticipated end result within the dependent variable. For instance: Precipitation with a pH of three.6 will lead to 20 p.c decrease charges of seed

germination of pink maple (Acer rubrum). Presentation of the speculation might use the formal IF-

THEN speculation assertion indicating the anticipated relationship between the dependent variable and the unbiased variable (e.g., If there may be extra ozone within the higher environment, then much less

ultraviolet mild will attain the floor of the earth.). The speculation might mirror a predicted

rating of outcomes. For instance, For brine shrimp uncovered to rising concentrations of three

chemical substances, Chemical A can have the bottom LC-50 (most poisonous), Chemical B can have the best LC50 (least poisonous), and Chemical C can have intermediate toxicity.

four. MATERIALS AND METHODS – Describe precisely how and while you carried out your experiment. Embrace sufficient element on experimental design, experimental equipment/tools, strategies of gathering and analyzing information, and sorts of experimental management so that somebody

studying your report might precisely repeat your experiment. Steps must be mentioned in

chronological order. Use diagrams or drawings if they might assist the reader perceive and replicate the experiment (see feedback beneath 5. RESULTS for easy methods to determine such illustrations).

Describe any supplies or tools you used, once more with sufficient element to allow somebody to

repeat your experiment. This part must be written in previous tense and energetic voice as work

accomplished (e.g., We crammed every of three petri dishes with 20 ml of faucet water.).

5. RESULTS – Report the outcomes of your experiment. Current your observations / information with NO interpretations or conclusions about what they imply. You have to have textual content on this part,

supported utilizing tables, graphs and/or charts to help in presenting the outcomes. Embrace a dialogue of uncertainties.

Make sure to make particular reference to all such tables, graphs, pictures, drawings, diagrams,

maps, and many others. Additionally report the outcomes of any statistical exams. All tables or different sorts of illustrations

must be numbered (within the order wherein they’re referenced within the textual content and will have an applicable title. Tables are recognized above the desk. All different illustrations are known as

figures and are captioned beneath the illustration. This part must be written in previous tense as

work accomplished.

Embrace in a desk each information level you collected in your experiments, except you collected

greater than 100 information factors. If there have been greater than 100 information factors, you might save area and report

solely the variety of factors and the related averages or means.

http://labwrite.ncsu.edu/
Revised: August 7, 2019 eight

6. DISCUSSION – Clarify what your information and outcomes imply. Describe patterns and relationships that emerged. Clarify how any adjustments to or issues with the experimental design/process might have affected the outcomes. Contemplate the next questions: is it conclusive as a check of your

speculation? Talk about potential sources of error in your experiment? Does the experiment must be

repeated earlier than drawing conclusions about your speculation? How do your outcomes evaluate with

the outcomes of earlier analysis on the identical topic? What additional questions do the outcomes of your experiment elevate? What experiment(s) must be achieved subsequent?

7. CONCLUSION – Briefly summarize what you probably did, why you probably did it, and what occurred. This could embody a quick assertion indicating whether or not your speculation was supported or not supported. If applicable, suggest a modified speculation.

eight. LITERATURE CITED – Alphabetical listing of books, publications, paperwork, or internet sites you confer with that help statements you make in your report. Within the physique of the report, in-textual content

referencing to those sources is given by giving the creator and yr of publication inside parentheses on the finish of the sentence which incorporates the cited info.

• Within the reference citations, for a web site, make sure you give the COMPLETE URL for the webpage (do NOT simply listing the primary web site) from which you obtained your

info!!! DO NOT put the URL within the in-textual content reference. For instance, the data that “17,694 turbines produced 30 million tons of hazardous waste within the

United States” is derived from the U.S. Environmental Safety Company however it can NOT

be discovered at: http://www.epa.gov/ and this essential EPA web site ought to NOT be cited because the supply. Moderately, the statistic is discovered at: http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/osw/tsds.htm and

that is the whole URL that must be included in your reference quotation.

Examples are supplied beneath for the format it’s best to use within the precise alphabetical listing of all literature cited.

BOOK:

Junger, S. 1997. The Good Storm. HarperCollins, New York. 301pp. (listing particular pages or a chapter in case you

solely used the guide to confer with particular info on a number of pages, eg., if we have been itemizing this guide just for its reference to the tragedy of the commons and the swordfish fishery, we’d add “see p. 83-84”)

CHAPTER IN EDITED BOOK WITH DIFFERENT AUTHOR FOR EACH CHAPTER:

Miller, J.E. 1988. Results on photosynthesis, carbon allocation, and plant development related to air pollutant

stress. Pages 287-316 in Heck, W.W., O.C. Taylor, and D.T. Tingey (eds.), Evaluation of Crop Loss

from Air Pollution. Elsevier Utilized Science, New York. 552pp.

ARTICLE IN MAGAZINE OR JOURNAL:

DuBay, D.T. 1996. Work your plan, plan your work: North Carolina’s Environmental Schooling Plan. Pal

of Wildlife – The Journal of the North Carolina Wildlife Federation 44(three):10-11. (Summer time 1996)

Ehrlich P.R., Murphy D.D., M. C. Singer, M.C., Sherwood, C.B., White, R.R. and Brown, I.L. 1980.

Extinction, discount, stability and enhance: The responses of checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas) populations to the California drought. Oecologia 46(1): 101-105. (July 1980

INTERNET WEB SITE (Citations for Web web sites must be like print media citations, together with

creator or sponsoring company, publication date, article title, web site title, URL, the date the data was

posted, and the date when the online tackle was accessed to acquire the data.):

North Carolina State College. 2004. Labwrite for College students – Enhancing Lab Studies. Sponsored and

funded by Nationwide Science Basis. http://labwrite.ncsu.edu/index.html

Plaisance, S. 2006. Wasps Launched in Louisiana to Fight Bugs. Environmental Information Community, Inc., San Francisco. < http://www.enn.com/at this time.html?id=11430 > posted October 12, 2006, accessed November

four, 2006.

http://www.epa.gov/
http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/osw/tsds.htm
http://labwrite.ncsu.edu/index.html
http://www.enn.com/at this time.html?id=11430

seventh of August, 2019 1st of August, 2019 1st of August, 2019 1

ENVR 1401 – INTRODUCTION

Lab 1 – Scientific Method

Studying Aims:

1. Define the steps to the scientific methodology.

2. Determine testable observations.

three. Distinguish between dependent and unbiased variables.

four. Gather, manage, and current scientific information.

Overview

This exercise explores the idea and software of the scientific methodology. To tell apart true cause- impact

relationships from associations or perceptions, phenomena have to be investigated utilizing designed experiments

and cautious observations that may be repeated by others.

The scientific methodology is usually mentioned as a standardized, linear course of that features the next steps and entails particular expertise:

1. Make observations or collect information ➔ typically results in a query

2. Formulate a speculation which results in an related prediction

three. Design an applicable check/experiment to

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