Posted: February 13th, 2022

Crisis Management Tenerife

Time period Mission Crisis Management Teensier Planes Crash Case Research Desk of Contents Contents Web page Summary Historical past Key Dialogue Query 1 References 1352123 Summary – 9 Conclusion and Suggestion The Teensier Catastrophe is a well-known occasion among the many aviation business for being the worst alarm accident in human historical past. A Dutch KILL 747 and an American Pan Am 747 crashed Into one another at a Spanish airport Within the Canary Islands resulted In 583 dying and a intensive media protection on the Dutch, American and Spanish topics.
The catastrophe was investigated and studied by the Worldwide Air Transport Affiliation (DATA), the Worldwide Civil Aviation Group CIAO and researchers as a mannequin for human errors within the airplane system that proved susceptible to disaster. The catastrophe was summarized as a mix of human and technical errors though the investigation identified communication inaccuracy as the only real trigger for the tragedy.
Consideration error, notion error, response communication error, poor choice making and an inadequate airport all contributed to the crash. This catastrophe has nice impression immediately and not directly to the stakeholders resembling two nationwide airline firms, the cities and their households, the airport staff and the Spanish authorities, because the nation the place the accident passed off. Due to this fact, this catastrophe Entails the aviation business In three completely different international locations, legal guidelines, languages and likewise native political Points.

Proper after the catastrophe, each airways and Spanish authorities has to take care of a number of delicate points together with the crash survivors and sufferer, physique identification, releasing data to the general public, sorting monetary accountability underneath the stress of excessive stage of media protection and time restrict. For the reason that occasion, worldwide aviation organizations and Lorene enterprise have labored arduous to place collectively new laws, disaster prevention and response plans that can cease wage occasions from occurring. The Teensier disaster is marked as one in every of biggest change in aviation method to disaster coaching.
It launched anticipate crises pondering, persona and angle take a look at; on-board disaster plan, checklists, disaster drills and Crew Useful resource Management applications (CRM) in addition to bolstered the strictest legal guidelines on worldwide language and communication code used within the business. The every stakeholder group (airline firms, passengers, Airport Air Visitors Management) to arrange for disaster. Advance communication techniques. Anti-blocking system (BAD), efficient security demonstration and Uncommon-language are the principle advice. The paper additionally mentioned post-crisis restoration of the setting, infrastructure and companies.
As well as, related instances from Thailand that was created by related errors just like the political protest that Web page | 1 closed down Sanitarium Airport in November 2008 and the 13TH that crashed at Tribunal worldwide airport, Nepal in 1992. It may be concluded that the accident inspired the aviation business to lastly handle its vulnerability and flaws in final areas of errors that may rise a sequence a contraction to an excellent tragedy. Accordingly to CIAO, Teensier Catastrophe turned a required mannequin of case research explored in current and future aviation coaching courses.
Web page | 2 Historical past: Teensier Catastrophe The Teensier catastrophe occurred on March 27, 1977 at 17:06:56 native time at Los Rodeos Airport on the island of Teensier within the Canary Islands, Spain. On that day two of Boeing 747 crashed on one another, the catastrophe precipitated the very best variety of fatalities of any single accident in aviation historical past. The 2 planes concerned have been the 47 airbuses of Pan American World Airways Flight 1736 (the Clipper Victor) underneath the management of Captain Victor Grubs, and KILL Royal Dutch Airways Flight 4805 (the Iris) underneath the command of Captain Jacob Velveteen van Canteen.
Each have been taking off on the one runway of the airport, the KILL flight crashed into the Pan Am plane taxiing in the wrong way on the identical runway. From the image purple line refers to KILL airline which attempting to again taxi and take off. Pan am airline might be seen as blue line which was suppose to taxi in quantity three nevertheless it was continued till quantity four. Actually each planes have to arrive within the Lass Palms Airport Spain. Nonetheless, a terrorist bomb exploded in a florist’s store on the Lass plasmas terminal.
Airport authorities had been warned so though the bomb broken the within of the terminal, instantly the civil aviation authorities at Lass Palms closed the airport as a result of the political terrorists may need an opportunity for setting out the second bomb. All of the flights that have been scheduled to land at Lass Palms must be cancelled and diverted to the smaller surrounding airports. At Teensier, the airport consisted of 1 runway and one main taxiway parallel to it, in addition to a number of small taxiways connecting them. The management tower staffs have been additionally underage | three certified for his or her English ability.
Furthermore, there are heavy fogs that stop KILL to with out permission from management tower on account of critical timing rule of KILL airline, which the airline needs to be on time. Due to this fact, KILL made a 1800 flip to take off whereas Pan Am 1736 was additionally following the KILL plane on the identical runway. Nonetheless, the pilot was not clear what the tower had stated to them. Just a few minutes after KILL collided into Pan Am with catastrophic penalties. Different aviation catastrophe instances with the same communication trigger was 13TH case on 31 July 1992 when Airbus 10 from Thai airways was on account of land at Tribunal worldwide airport, Katmandu, Nepal.
There was deceptive communications from language downside between pilot and visitors controller in addition to the unhealthy climate situation. The captain of TAG 311 requested for permission to show left, however upon receiving no reply to his requests he”s introduced that he was turning proper and climbed the plane to flight stage 200. The flight went by way of a 360-degree flip, handed over the airport, and crashed right into a steep rock in a distant space of the Lang tang Nationwide Park at an altitude of 11,500 toes. To sum up the causes of each this and Teensier instances might be embrace because the communication breakdown and climate situation.
Web page | four Key Dialogue Questions 1 . What have been the main communication issues [issues with your chosen crisis? First of all, “communication” means the process of transmitting and receiving ideas, information, feeling and message. Communication”s barriers include language, psychological, physical, and general in this case the most communication problem occur in this crisis is no doubt human communication factor which include attention error, perceptual error and response error. From the accident it is clear that the breakdown in communication led to a critical mistake. Attention error was one of the causes that make the KILL pilot unable to pay attention to TACT tower as much as he can. Since KILL captain was seriously concern about punctuality because it matter to his career. Therefore, he pay attention to the timing more than safety this make KILL plane took off without being making the status clear and did not heard the air traffic controllers instruction to stand by for takeoff even he know that the Pan Am aircraft may still be taxiing. 2) Perception error The bad weather condition including heavy fog and clouds covering the field.
The perception was one of the barriers that to allow both 2 planes to see clear runway. 3) Response Communication error. Due to language and misunderstanding The KILL co-pilot told the TACT tower and stated they were “ready for takeoff’ and then also stated they were “waiting for our TACT clearance announce. ” However, the tower responded by telling the crew what route they were to take after takeoff and, from it, used the word “takeoff. ” They did not directly indicate that takeoff clearance had been given, but the use of the word seemed to confuse the KILL crew more.
KILL said, “ready to take off’ to mean that the plane was already starting forward and getting ready to take off. However, the tower mistaken it to mean the plane was stand by at the end of the runway awaiting clearance for takeoff. After that the pilot made a short statement of “we”re going. ” again, adding to the confusion that the plane was now cleared for takeoff. On the other hand, the Panama flight was taxiing back down the runway. They had passed the exit number 3 and were heading to outnumber 4 exit which in the wrong position.
This cause by non-standardization of calling the exit Page | 5 number. When TACT call that third exit, Panama did not know it number three exit or in order of third exit. Panama”s captain heard that the KILL flight was getting ready to take off they try to tell to the tower to inform that they were still taxiing down the runway. However, it was at the same time the KILL captain indicated that they were “going. ” 2. Who were the major stakeholders which group had the most influence on communication to the stakeholders and what were the consequences of this influence?
The major stakeholders in this crisis include Panama airline, KILL airline, the passengers of both airline (both victims and survivors), relative of victims, crews, TACT tower and Spain government. The airlines would be considered as the major takeover that was affected from the disaster the most because after the crisis cost the lives of 583 people the airline have to face with infamy situation from the public. According to the investigations from black box, the conversations between pilot and TACT tower found out that the cause of the accident was consider to be pilot error.
It shows that captain has under-qualified in terms of accuracy and safety. This is the direct effect to both airline companies. First of all, after the accident the airline and government should provide the details to victim”s relatives such as who were among the survivors and victims. Later, the airlines should show that they”re concern and ready to take responsibility of the accident. From this crisis, both airlines, firstly need to revise their safety policy. Aviation is the service that should consider safety above all else.
The airline company should revisit all the policies for the cockpit crews to make sure that the rule is efficiency enough. They should study the disaster in detail and remarked that it would not happen again. In addition, Airline should be honest to communicate with stakeholders especially relative of passengers and survivors. The companies should show the responsibility such as care treatment and mutation. Post-crisis, the airlines should provide necessary information that needs to be made known to the stakeholders.
For example the cause of the accident, number of victims, aids from the company, the plan for avoids accidents in the future. The important things are to be honest by telling the truth. Nevertheless, one of stakeholders in this crisis that should take action to communicate with survivors and their victims relatives is Spain government. They should take responsibility for the crisis since the cause of this accident was originally came from the bombing from he freedom-fighter movement for independence set the bomb of the Canaries Page | 6 Archipelago at Grand Canadian airport.
In summary, the major stakeholder that had the most influence on communication are the airline companies. The airline companies stakeholders, the key idea that they need to keep in mind is to be honest and give clear information. Otherwise the crisis situation may have gotten worse and hard to handle. 3. Discuss the political issues facing the stakeholders and what problems these may cause 1) Different Nationality Airlines; KILL and Panama American are different commonality airlines, KILL is from Netherlands and Panama American is from the United States. It evidently shows that none of the companies want to take the blame for this disaster.
However, the result from this crisis is due to the fact that both of them used noon-standard phrases. 2) Third-Country Airport; Spain was in the condition of an under-standard airport location because the country was facing with civil war problems and many reckless political issues therefore, the service and the safety of the airports should be taken as one of the top priorities when compared to another safety issues. 3) Local Political Crisis. The political issue that stakeholder in Teensier crisis faced was due to the effect from the bomb exploding at Grand Canadian airport.
This better-facilitated airport supposed to be the landing airport for Panama American and KILL airlines. The movement for independence set the bomb and autonomy of the Canaries archipelago had set off the bomb. However the bomb did not killed anyone at Grand Canadian airport but it was the beginning of the disaster that cost more than 580 of innocent passengers” lives. No one could imagine the political chain-effects it had on that day. It is no doubt that political issue has a powerful effect on the country. The political issues seem to be the part of many crises.
There are many times that politic up-heaving is related to the aviation. Let me give you one of the closest example in Thailand when yellow shirt (People’s Alliance for Democracy) Protest at Submachine International Airport. On the November 2008, the yellow shirt members dressed in yellow blocked the two ends of the road in front of the terminal building of Submachine international airport, in order to prevent the landing of the prime minister’s flight. As a result, this event affected all the travelers in the airport as well as the inbound and age | 7 outbound flight.
In that situation there were explosions outside of the passenger terminal several people were injured. In conclusion, the political protest and violence issues do not only affect the politicians and people in the country but also many innocent people who is consider as one group of stakeholder from the crisis as well. Moreover, the conflict can lead to the large and terrible accident as Teensier disaster. Government should be able to control all situations. Especially, when the crisis involves or takes place in international presences such as airport locations.
Since, for any countries, tourism areas such as airports are the crucial point of country”s image, economic and reputation of the country. 4. Discuss the victim groups and comment on the impact of the crisis on these groups. This crisis are 1) the passengers 2) the airline staffs 3) the two airline companies and their reputation and 4) the Teensier (Spanish) Airport. Let”s begin with the passengers and the airline staffs. Out of the two airplane crashes, more than 560 people were killed and only 63 survived from the Pan Am airplane.
None of the passengers from KILL flight lived. The result is due two main factors, firstly because he KILL plane was at the point of taking off at full speed. After it collided into Panama, the impact caused the KILL to burst up in flames in midair. The chance for survival was low for both the airplane crews and the passengers. Secondly, Panama plane was only taxi-ins on the runway and their captain had made a quick and instinctively decision to turn the plane out off the way as soon as they saw KILL flight heading towards them.
While the decision did help save the lives the pilots and some of passengers, more than half of the people on the American plane were killed. After he crisis, several teams were working together to assist Page | 8 these victim group. On the Spanish part, due to the dense fog, their airport fire department was prevented from seeing the clear vision of accident and spent the crucial moments of the time taking out the fire on KILL plane before they noticed the Panama. As the news reached the mainland, the Spanish military was later flown in to help sort the American and Dutch passenger bodies as well.
However, this was an unprepared situation for a small airport like Teensier and had caused delay in rescuing the victims. For example, the airport only has two fire engine trucks, unfinished construction sites, and other forms of incomplete facilities to support the time of crisis. Feedbacks and new updates between the passengers and their families in their countries also took quite a lot of time to communicate as well since the incident took place in 1977 and the communication technology was”t advance enough.
On the other hand, once the news reached KILL headquarters in Amsterdam, Netherlands worked immediately to prepare an empty Boeing 747 and members of The Dutch Emergency Identification Staff (RITE) to pick the survivors and identify the burned bodies at Teensier Airport. They reached the location in four hours and were able to be grand permission to enter the disaster scene and identify their Dutch victims. The next day, the company sent in 4 dentists from Amsterdam to help identify the hardly recognizable bodies by teeth examination.
The Dutch company and their team were able to accomplish the difficult task of identifying and separating all the Dutch victims from the American and placed them into coffins within the timeshare of the Spanish law. The law at time stated that the body of any foreigner must be secured in the closed container by 48 hours of accident. Therefore, after the first-step procedure, the bodies of the victims were flown back to Amsterdam where over hundred medical researchers and staff worked on to uncover further details.
As all of the victims were burnt, the staffs must work against the time before the dead bodies reaches an “ante mortem” phrase, which make them harder to identify. In the end, the company was able to recognize all 248 victims. This swift action and extensive care the company took with this group of victims and their family later helped KILL restored their reputation with their own stakeholders. 58,000 to $600,000 US. Dollars. Without it, KILL reputation may have worsen as when the event unfold, Captain Jacob Velveteen van Canteen of KILL was the main person responsible for this worst disaster in aviation history.
The Panama Company team was less successful in their handling of the accident. Because the American medical team arrived much later at Teensier, they din”t received permission to identify the victims at the scene of the accident, so many important information were lost along the way of returning the bodies back to the United States. Out of the 335 Page | 9 American victims, they only managed to identify 65 percent of the victims. As a result mom of the passengers” families din”t receive closure to the investigation they need. However, the company”s pilots were not the cause of the tragedy.
As for the Teensier Airport of the Canary Islands, the crisis caused a huge pressure on the control tower and its staffs in for the management of the crowded airport. After the crisis, investigations point to the non-standard phrases the control tower used with both of the aircraft as well as the ineffective radio transmission between all parties as well. Further investigation pointed out that the Spanish control tower crews have been listening to a football match on the radio. However, the claim was never confirmed back by the airport.
From our secondary sources research, there was no clear information and news update to how the Spanish airport and authorities directly handled the post-crisis negative impact on them. 5. Communication Strategies: a. Was there a crisis management plan in place and if so, how was it communicated to the stakeholders? Before and after the crisis. It is evident that crisis can occur at any time in any industry. Therefore, most major international companies and organizations usually have either a crisis prevention plan or a crisis response plan at hand.
Crisis management is also very important to the airline business because while scientifically stated that air travel is the safest way to travel, Airplane disasters received enormous media attention and often result in long period of negativity toward the particular airline involved. Therefore, in the subjects of aviation safety, the industry has developed two main organizations like The International Air Transport Association (DATA) and The International Civil Aviation Organization (CIAO) that deal with providing an international standard on air travel safety, air transportation regulations and laws.
DATA, founded in 1945 in Havana, Cuba, is an international industry trade group of is an international industry trade group of airlines which has its headquarter in Montreal, Canada. The same goes for CIAO. However, their executive offices are located in Switzerland at Geneva Airport. For DATA, the association has more than 240 airlines Page | 10 members around the world. DATA schedules and manages these members international air traffic over 150 countries around the world.
In terms of crisis prevention and response, DATA has set an international standard and assigned “three-letter” and “two-letter code” to airports and airlines to prevent location countersigning. DATA also created “DATA Dangerous Goods Regulations” which is studied and exercised by all the airline and airport employees to recognize and deal disasters for example, terrorist bombs, hi-Jacking, weapons on boards and other unforeseen dangers from occurring. CIAO, is an organization founded by the United Nations in 1947.
The CIAO Council develops safety practices which are adopted by airline and airport staffs when faced with a crisis or an in-flight emergency. They also standardize “air navigation, infrastructure, flight inspection, prevention of unlawful interference, and facilitation of border-crossing procedures for international civil aviation”. Moreover, CIAO established the protocols for air accident investigations and air transport safety. Therefore since the sass aviation industry has been developing and standardizing crisis management plans for their airline and airport members.
Pilots, cabin crews, control tower and ground staffs from different nationality, background and different languages work together towards the same procedure which gives the air passengers a confirmation on air security and safety. However, these regulations are concentrated on preventing technical errors and remonstration errors. Before the Teensier Airport disaster, the communication codes and aviation technical language between each sector of the industry were not the focus.
Regulations and practices that will minimize and eliminate communication and human errors became the top priority for DATA and CIAO only after this horrifying accident occurred in 1977. B. What were the communication errors, before, during and after the crisis? What would you have done differently? The Teensier disaster happened mainly because of the communication errors and misunderstanding between three touch points; 1) KILL cockpit 2) Panama cockpit and ) the Teensier control tower.
The communication error occurred during the length of approximately 8 minutes accordingly to the investigation”s transcript of the two cockpit”s communications with the Teensier control tower. On March 27, 1977, the KILL and Panama airplanes are both ordered to divert from the main Grand Canadian Airport in Spain due to the Page | 11 terrorist bomb explosion. They both landed on Teensier and is faced with an over- crowd airport as many airlines were also being diverted there. The weather condition was bad with heavy fog which prevented any plane from taking off and blinded the Sino from the control tower and cockpit as well.
In 1977, with no advance aviation technology identification of the location and name of the aircrafts are solely done by radio transmission. After waiting for the fog is lift up enough for departure, the KILL and Panama were both taxiing down the runway to turn around for takeoff. A non- standardize communication phrase from the control tower staff told Panama to leave the runway by saying “third to your left” without using the correct route name like “CO or Charlie Three”. Due the different English accent, in the beginning the Panama cockpit crews were even confused whether the control staff said “first or third”.
Panama ended up missing their actual exit from the runway and continued down the path to exit CO route as KILL was preparing to takeoff from the opposite direction. Neither of the three touch points knew where the other planes are located because Meanwhile in the KILL cockpit, without the official TACT clearance from the control tower, the KILL captain was preparing to take off and began to gain life-off speed down the runway. The last minutes before the crash, communication errors occurred in all three touch points.
The control told the KILL to “stand by for takeoff I will call you when runway is clear”, while the KILL captain may only heard “takeoff, runway is clear” through the radio. At the same time, the tower told the Panama “Papa Alpha 1736 report runway clear” which din”t mean the Panama already exited the runway. The last minute transcript is as follows: page | 12 1706:25. 47 APP: Ah-?papa Alpha 1736 report runway clear. 1706:25. 59 parallax: Okay, we’ll report when were clear. 1706:31. 69 APP: Thank you. 1706:32. 43 KILL 3: IS he not clear, then? 706:34. 10 KILL 1 : What do you say? 1706:34. 15 parallax: yup. 1706:34. 0 KILL 3: IS he not clear, that pan American? 1706:35. 70 KILL 1: Oh, yes. At the same time the following comments were made in the Pan Am cockpit: 1706:35. 70 Panama: Let’s get the # # # [expletive] out of right here. There he is–look at him # # # that # # # is coming. 1706:40. 47 Panama: Get off Get off Get off of approaching KILL engines. 1706:50. OOH–almanac. three seconds earlier than the collision, the 2 planes have been close to one another sufficient to be seen by way of the heavy fog.
When the KILL did see the Panama, he tried to pressure the aircraft off floor, inflicting the plane”s tail to pull throughout the runway and caught fireplace. The Panama additionally tried to take a pointy flip off the runway into the grass nevertheless it was too late for each plane. The crash trigger enormous impression sound and fireplace explosion, nevertheless, accordingly to the Spanish native reporters there have been no floor witnesses when the accident happen because of the dense fog. Whereas the Panama cockpit crew and few passengers survived, BACK exploded in midair with no survivors.
From the state of affairs, we will see that communication errors due primarily to the non-standardize aviation language is the trigger to this tragedy, particularly from the management tower “Ok” and the KILL cockpit “We”re at takeoff’ in addition to the choice to take off by KILL Captain Velveteen van Canteen’s with out confirming the tower. Furthermore, if earlier language confusion between Panama and the tower din”t occur, Panama would have exited the runway at CO route and gained”t collide into KILL flight in any respect. 6. Report on the next; Danger Evaluation and planning, pre/submit disaster.
Within the sass, air journey has already developed and brought steps of precautions to forestall disasters kind occurring. Technical downside evaluation, engineering pre-flight checkups and pre-post flight cockpit technical checklists to make sure the security of the plane is as much as the usual. Nonetheless, the chance planning/ disaster planning put much less consideration on team-work communication and human associated errors resembling consideration errors and perceptive errors. Furthermore, within the ass, the captain of the plane was giving instructions.
Seniority performed an enormous function within the web page | 13 cockpit and captains” choice making weren’t usually challenged by the co-pilot or second officers. This sequence of human associated errors contribute to the Teensier accident in 1977. As soon as the accident passed off, it was clear that cockpit and management tower and choice making nonetheless have many loopholes that can not be left unattended. The eye on human error, language barrier and inefficient aviation language turned in most important focus for worldwide aviation organizations to step in and alter their method in these areas for the very best customary of security.
The submit Teensier disaster has marked as one in every of biggest change in aviation coaching, disaster preparation and prevention. The enhancements are made primarily within the areas of intensive airline employees coaching. The main points are as follows: 1) Crisis Coaching Anticipate Crises; each pilot and cabin crews are actually required to review from the worst case eventualities and incomes from expertise case-studies. They have to full the worldwide protocol required hours earlier than they obtained permission to coach within the plane.
Consequently, in coaching to anticipate the worst that might occur, airline crews are conscious and alert of crises throughout all time of their operation. Communication Coaching; standardize terminology and codes are taught and the crews should bear quite a few examinations and take a look at earlier than they’re certified to fly. In addition they research Communication Patterns, Cue Recognition, Context Facility, and Cultural Intelligence s a part of the worldwide customary coaching as effectively. Furthermore, the language of teamwork is closely careworn on.
Captains are now not the seniority determine within the cockpit however work along with the primary officer and controller tower for good choice making. “Cross-checking” communication are train often all through the business for the simplest data alternate and reassurance Persona Take a look at and Bodily Take a look at; the airline crews are required to take persona take a look at and bodily take a look at that might decide whether or not they could be applicable for his or her session to deal with psychological and bodily stress.
This Crisis coaching amongst all staffs retains the business and its staff on alert that everybody must look out and put together the unthinkable that may occur. Not solely does it Web page | 14 helps to emphasize the significance of security and the function of every airline employees but additionally put together them to react in accordance with the disaster response plan. The case research additionally helps the employees to see how even the smallest choice making can create an impression on a big scale. 2) On-Board Crisis Plan Step-by-Step guidelines; within the current day, every plane and management tower is provided with guidelines that’s customized for each crew place on the plane.
The crews should go over the checklist and crosscheck the objects with their copilots, the cabin crews and ensure standing with the management tower earlier than the airplane leaves the terminal and taxi to the runway. The crews are additionally practice and given customary process to observe when confronted with unexpected emergency. As well as, for the airline stakeholders, in-flight security demonstration and instructions are offered for the passengers. three) Crisis Drills As soon as the airline staffs

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